Hungarian philosopher of science and mathematics (1922-1974). Published Proofs and Refutations (CUP), a dialogue establishing the dialectical nature of mathematical reasoning. Moved to philsoophy of science, where he developed the idea of a scientific research programme.

I considered Proofs and Refutations in Chapter 7 of Towards a Philosophy of Real Mathematics and investigated what a methodology of mathematical research programmes would look like in Chapter 8, using algebraic topology as an example.