# Michael Shulman n-congruence

In general, the idea is that an $n$-congruence in an $m$-category $K$, where $n\le m$, is an “internal $\left(n-1\right)$-category” in $K$. Of course, we only deal formally with the case $m\le 2$, although we allow $n$ and $m$ to be of the form $\left(r,s\right)$; see n-prefix.

###### Definition

Let $D$ be a 2-congruence in a 2-category $K$.

• $D$ is a (2,1)-congruence if it is an internal groupoid, i.e. there is a map ${D}_{1}\to {D}_{1}$ providing “inverses”.
• It is a (1,2)-congruence if ${D}_{1}\to {D}_{0}×{D}_{0}$ is ff.
• It is a 1-congruence if it is both a (2,1)-congruence and a (1,2)-congruence.
• it is a (0,1)-congruence if ${D}_{1}\to {D}_{0}×{D}_{0}$ is an equivalence.

Note that in a 1-category,

• a 2-congruence is just an internal category (a 1-category),
• a (2,1)-congruence is an internal groupoid (a (1,0)-category),
• a (1,2)-congruence is an internal poset (a (0,1)-category), and
• a 1-congruence is an internal equivalence relation (a 0-category).

Of course, a (0,1)-congruence in any 2-category is completely determined by any object ${D}_{0}$.

###### Theorem

Let $q:X\to Y$ be a morphism in $K$. If $Y$ is $n$-truncated for $n\ge -1$, then $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is an $\left(n+1\right)$-congruence. This means that:

1. If $Y$ is groupoidal, then $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (2,1)-congruence.
2. If $Y$ is posetal, then $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (1,2)-congruence.
3. If $Y$ is discrete, then $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a 1-congruence.
4. If $Y$ is subterminal, then $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (0,1)-congruence.

In all these cases the converse is true if $K$ is regular and $q$ is eso.

###### Proof

The forward directions are fairly obvious; it is the converses which take work. Suppose first that $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (2,1)-congruence, and let $\alpha :f\to g:X⇉Y$ be any 2-cell. Pulling back the eso $q$ along $f$ and $g$ gives ${P}_{1}\to T$ and ${P}_{2}\to T$; let $r:P\to T$ be the pullback ${P}_{1}{×}_{X}{P}_{2}$. Since $K$ is regular, $r$ is eso. By definition of kernels, the 2-cell $\alpha r$ corresponds to a map $P\to \left(q/q\right)$. But $\left(q/q\right)⇉C$ is a (2,1)-congruence, so composing this map with the “inverse” map $\left(q/q\right)\to \left(q/q\right)$ gives another map $P\to \left(q/q\right)$, and thereby another 2-cell $fr\to gr$ which is inverse to $\alpha r$. Finally, since $r$ is eso, precomposing with it reflects invertibility, so $\alpha$ must also be invertible. Thus $Y$ is groupoidal.

Now suppose that $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (1,2)-congruence, and let $\alpha ,\beta :f\to g:T\to Y$ be two parallel 2-cells. With notation as in the previous paragraph, the 2-cells $\alpha r$ and $\beta r$ correspond to morphisms $P⇉\left(q/q\right)$ which become isomorphic in $X$. But since $\left(q/q\right)⇉X$ is a (1,2)-congruence, this implies that the two maps $P⇉\left(q/q\right)$ are isomorphic, and hence $\alpha r=\beta r$. And since $r$ is eso, precomposing with it is faithful, so $\alpha =\beta$; thus $Y$ is posetal.

The discrete case follows by combining the posetal and groupoidal cases, so it remains to show that if $\mathrm{ker}\left(q\right)$ is a (0,1)-congruence then $Y$ is subterminal. We know it is discrete, so it suffices to show that given two $f,g:T⇉Y$ we have a 2-cell $f\to g$. Continuing with the same notation, and letting $h,k:P\to X$ be the induced maps with $qh\cong fr$ and $qk\cong gr$, we have $\left(h,k\right):P\to X×X=\left(q/q\right)$, and therefore the 2-cell defining the fork $\left(q/q\right)\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}⇉\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}X\stackrel{q}{\to }Y$ gives us a 2-cell $qh\to qk$ and therefore $fr\to gr$. Now $r$ is the quotient of its kernel, so for this 2-cell to induce a 2-cell $f\to g$ it suffices for it to be an action 2-cell for the actions of $\mathrm{ker}\left(r\right)$ on $fr$ and $gr$; but this is automatic since we know $Y$ to be posetal. Thus we have a 2-cell $f\to g$ as desired, so $Y$ is subterminal.

Revised on February 17, 2009 17:49:22 by Mike Shulman (75.3.140.11)