Sometimes we can equip a type with a certain structure, called an $A_3$-algebra structure, allowing us to derive some nice properties about the type and 0-truncate it to form monoids.
An $A_3$-space or $A_3$-algebra in homotopy types or H-monoid consists of
A homomorphism of $A_3$-spaces between two $A_3$-spaces $A$ and $B$ consists of
A function $\phi:A \to B$ such that
A function
such that the left unitor is preserved:
such that the right unitor is preserved:
such that the associator is preserved:
The integers are an $A_3$-space.
Every loop space is naturally an $A_3$-space with path concatenation as the operation. In fact every loop space is a group.
The type of endofunctions $A \to A$ has the structure of an $A_3$-space, with basepoint $id_A$, operation function composition.
A monoid is a 0-truncated $A_3$-space.
Classically, an A3-space is a homotopy type equipped with the structure of a monoid in the homotopy category (only).