In algebraic topology one defines and uses functors from some category of topological spaces to some category of algebraic objects to help solve some existence or uniqueness problem for spaces or maps.
There are 4 basic problems of algebraic topology for the existence of maps: extension problems, retraction problems, lifting problems and section problems.
Regarding that these problems make sense in any category, we will talk about objects and morphisms and not spaces and maps.
Let be a morphism. Find a retraction of , that is a morphism such that .
The retraction problem is a special case of the extension problem for and . Conversely, the general extension problem may (in Top and many other categories) be reduced to a retraction problem:
If the pushout exists (for , as above) then the extensions of along are in 1–1 correspondence with the retractions of .
Given morphisms and , find a lifting of to , i.e. a morphism such that .
For any find a section , i.e. a morphism such that .
The section problem is a special case of a lifting problem where . Then the lifting is the section: . A converse is true in the sense
If the pullback exists then the general liftings for of along as above are in a bijection with the section of .