# Contents

## Idea

A generalized graph in the sense of HRY is a generalization of the notion of a pseudograph given at graph (see in particular Definition in terms action on a set of half edges). By adding structure like directions for the edges, we can define a wheeled graph which is a generalization of a directed pseudograph. What differentiates a generalized graph from a pseudograph and a wheeled graph from a directed pseudograph is the notion of an “exceptional cell,” which should be thought of as a set of half edges which have no vertices.

A generalized graph can be visualized as a set of vertices with half edges attached to them, a rule for attaching half edges to glue the vertices together, and potentially some half edges (flags) that are attached to only one or zero vertices. For instance, a particularly simple generalized graph is one with no vertices and one edge.

## Definitions

The following is Definition 2.2 of HRY:

###### Definition

A generalized graph $G$ is a finite set $Flag(G)$ with:

• a partition of $Flag(G)=\coprod_{\alpha\in A} F_\alpha$ into cells with $A$ finite,

• a distinguished partition subset $F_\epsilon$ called the exceptional cell,

• an involution $\iota$ satisfying $\iota F_\epsilon\subseteq F_\epsilon$,

• and a free involution $\pi$ on the set of $\iota$-fixed points of $F_\epsilon$.

Given a generalized graph $G$, Definition 2.3 of HRY gives some useful terminology:

###### Definition
1. The elements of $Flag(G)$ are called flags. A flag in a non-exceptional (resp. exceptional) cell is called an ordinary flag (resp. exceptional flag).
2. Call $G$ an ordinary graph if $F_\epsilon$ is empty.
3. Each non-exceptional partition subset $F_\alpha\neq F_\epsilon$ is called a vertex. The set of vertices is denoted by $Vt(G)$. An empty vertex is an isolated vertex. A flag in a vertex is said to be adjacent to or attached to that vertex.
4. An $\iota$-fixed point is a leg of $G$. The set of legs is denoted by $Leg(G)$. An ordinary leg (resp. exceptional leg) is an ordinary (resp. exceptional) flag that is also a leg. For an $\iota$-fixed point $x\in F_\epsilon$, the pair $\{x,\pi x\}$ is called an exceptional edge.
5. A 2-cycle of $\iota$ consisting of ordinary flags is called an ordinary edge. A 2-cycle of $\iota$ contained in a vertex is a loop. A vertex that does not contain any loop is called loop free. A 2-cycle of $\iota$ contained in the exceptional cell is called an exceptional loop.
6. An internal edge is any 2-cycle of $\iota$. An edge is an internal edge, an exceptional edge, or an ordinary leg. The set of edges of $G$ (resp. internal edges) is denoted $Edge(G)$ (resp. Edge_i(G))\$.
7. An ordinary edge $e=\{e_0,e_1\}$ is said to be adjacent to or attached to a vertex $v$ if either $e_0$, $e_1$ or both are adjacent to $v$.

## Extra Structure

There are a number of important structures that a generalized graph can possess which will be useful in using them to describe . The following is again from HRY:

###### Definition

Suppose $G$ is a generalized graph. Fix a (possibly infinite) set of colors $\mathcal{C}$.

1. A coloring of $G$ is a function $Flag(G)\overset{\kappa}\to \mathcal{C}$ that is constant on orbits of $\iota$ and $\pi$.

2. A direction for $G$ is a function $Flag(G)\overset{\delta}\to \{-1,1\}$ such that

• if $\iota x\neq x$, then $\delta(\iota x)=-\delta(x)$,
• and if $x \in F_\epsilon$, then $\delta(\pi x)=-\delta (x)$.
3. For $G$ with direction, an input (resp. output) of a vertex $v$ is a flag $x\in v$ such that $\delta(x)=1$ (resp. $\delta(x)=-1$). An input (resp. output) of $G$ is a leg $x$ such that $\delta(x)=1$ (resp. $\delta(x)=-1$). For $u\in Vt(G)\cup \{G\}$, the set of inputs (resp. outputs) of $u$ is written $in(u)$ (resp. $out(u)$).

4. A listing for $G$ with direction is a choice for each $u\in Vt(G)\cup \{G\}$ of a bijection of pairs of sets

$(in(u),out(u))\overset{l_u}\to(\{1,\ldots,|in(u)|\},\{1,\ldots,|out(u)|\}).$

Thus, using these properties, we can model and with generalized graphs. See there and for more.

• , and . Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 2147. Springer, Cham, 2015. (arxiv version)

• . Graphs, hypergraphs, and properads, arXiv:1407.3744.