Zoran Skoda distributed consensus

  • Leslie Lamport, Paxos made simple, ACM Sigact News, 32(4):18–25, 2001 pdf
  • Leslie Lamport, Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system, Communications of the ACM, 21(7):558–565, July 1978 pdf

Byzantine problem

  • M. J. Fischer, N. Lynch, M. S. Paterson, Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process JACM 32:2, 374-382 (1985) pdf

  • A. Miller, Yu Xia, et al., The honey badger of BFT protocols, Cryptology e-print archive 2016/99, pdf 2016.

  • M. Castro, B. Liskov, et al., Practical byzantine fault tolerance, Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (1999) 173–186 pdf

  • L. Lamport, R. Shostak, M. Pease, The byzantine generals problem, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 4/3 (1982), p. 382–401 pdf; Reaching agreement in the presence of faults, Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 27, 2 (April 1980) pdf

  • L. Lamport, Michael Melliar-Smith, Synchronizing clocks in the presence of faults, Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 32, 1 (January 1985), 52-78 pdf

  • C. Dwork, N. Lynch, L. Stockmeier, Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 35:2 (1988) 288-323 pdf

  • David Schwartz, Noah Youngs, Arthur Britto, The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm, Ripple Labs Inc. 2014 pdf

  • V. Buterin, V. Griffith, Casper the friendly finality gadget arXiv/1710.09437

  • Pierre-Louis Aublin, Rachid Guerraoui, Nikola Knežević,Vivien Quéma, Marko Vukolić, The Next 700 BFT Protocols, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS) 32:4, (2015) art. 12, doi pdf

We present Abstract (ABortable STate mAChine replicaTion), a new abstraction for designing and reconfiguring generalized replicated state machines that are, unlike traditional state machines, allowed to abort executing a client’s request if “something goes wrong.” Abstract can be used to considerably simplify the incremental development of efficient Byzantine fault-tolerant state machine replication (BFT) protocols that are notorious for being difficult to develop. In short, we treat a BFT protocol as a composition of Abstract instances. Each instance is developed and analyzed independently and optimized for specific system conditions. We illustrate the power of Abstract through several interesting examples. We first show how Abstract can yield benefits of a state-of-the-art BFT protocol in a less painful and error-prone manner. Namely, we develop AZyzzyva, a new protocol that mimics the celebrated best-case behavior of Zyzzyva using less than 35% of the Zyzzyva code. To cover worst-case situations, our abstraction enables one to use in AZyzzyva any existing BFT protocol. We then present Aliph, a new BFT protocol that outperforms previous BFT protocols in terms of both latency (by up to 360%) and throughput (by up to 30%). Finally, we present R-Aliph, an implementation of Aliph that is robust, that is, whose performance degrades gracefully in the presence of Byzantine replicas and Byzantine clients.

  • Pierre Tholoniat, Vincent Gramoli, Certifying blockchain Byzantine fault tolerance, arxiv/1909.07453

  • Vincent Gramoli, From blockchain consensus back to Byzantine consensus, Future Generation Computer Systems 107 (2020) 760-769 doi

  • C. Ganesh, A. Patra, Optimal extension protocols for byzantine broadcast and agreement, Distrib. Comput. 34, 59–77 (2021) doi


  • Ethan Buchman, Jae Kwon, Zarko Milosevic, The latest gossip on BFT consensus CoRR, arXiv/1807.04938
  • Ethan Buchman, Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance in the age of blockchains, 2016. tendermint.com, Jae Kwon, Tendermint: consensus without mining, pdf 2014
  • used by cosmos and fluence networks

Proof of Work

See also nlab:blockchain.

  • Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system, pdf 2008.
  • Roger Wattenhofer, The science of the blockchain, 115 pp. Inverted Forest Publishing 2016

For delegated proof of stake see the Durov’s paper on TON and this popular article.

Hashgraph and DAGs

  • Leemon Baird, The Swirlds hashgraph consensus algorithm: fair, fast, byzantine fault tolerance, pdf (May 2016); Hashgraph consensus: detailed examples pdf; Overview of Swirlds Hashgraph: An Introduction To The Hashgraph (SDK Available Now) online

  • Hedera Hashgraph whitepaper pdf; intro to whitepaper web; company homepage

  • Tolar hashnet whitepaper pdf

  • Serguei Popov, The tangle pdf, 2016.


Last revised on April 23, 2021 at 23:23:51. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.