The concept of coherent state in quantum mechanics/quantum physics may be formalized in the context of geometric quantization, The original definition is due to (Rawnsley 77), further developments include (Kirwin 07).
A review and further developments of these considerations are in
Generalization to non-Kähler symplectic manifolds is in
Anatol Odzijewicz, Coherent state method in geometric quantization, in Twenty Years of Bialowiez: a mathematical anthology, Aspects of Differential Geometric Methods in Physics_ (pp 47-78) , World Sci. Monogr. Ser. Math. 8 (2005); Coherent states and geometric quantization, Comm. Math. Phys. 150 (1992), no. 2, 385–413 doi 94c:58077
Brian Charles Hall, Geometric quantization and the generalized Segal–Bargmann transform for Lie groups of compact type, Comm. Math. Phys., 226:233–268, 2002. doi
D. J. Rowe, Coherent states, induced representations, geometric quantization, and their vector coherent state extensions, Symmetry in physics, 177–188, CRM Proc. Lecture Notes 34, Amer. Math. Soc. 2004. MR2005a:81100