Observation that graphene appears as a topological insulator when its spin-orbit coupling is resolved, due to a quantum spin Hall effect:

- Charles Kane, Eugene Mele,
*Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 226801 (2005) (arXiv:cond-mat/0411737, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.226801)

Characterization of the resulting topological phase of matter via introduction fo the Kane-Mele invariant:

- Charles Kane, Eugene Mele,
*$Z_2$ Topological Order and the Quantum Spin Hall Effect*, Phys. Rev. Lett.**95**(2005) 146802 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.146802)

- Liang Fu, Charles Kane, Eugene Mele,
*Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions*, Phys. Rev. Lett.**98**(2007) 106803 $[$doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.106803$]$

- N. P. Armitage, Eugene Mele, Ashvin Vishwanath,
*Weyl and Dirac semimetals in three-dimensional solids*, Rev. Mod. Phys.**90**015001 (2018) $[$doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.90.015001$]$

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