**analysis** (differential/integral calculus, functional analysis, topology)

metric space, normed vector space

open ball, open subset, neighbourhood

convergence, limit of a sequence

compactness, sequential compactness

continuous metric space valued function on compact metric space is uniformly continuous

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A *Cauchy sequence* is an infinite sequence which ought to converge in the sense that successive terms get arbitrarily close together, as they would if they were getting arbitrarily close to a limit. Among sequences, only Cauchy sequences will converge; in a complete space, all Cauchy sequence converge.

The precise definition varies with the context.

A sequence $(x_i)_i$ of real numbers is **Cauchy** if, for every positive number $\epsilon$, almost all terms are within $\epsilon$ of one another. Explicitly:

$\forall \epsilon,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; |x_i - x_j| \lt \epsilon .$

In a metric space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** under the same condition, now relative to the metric $d$ on that space. Explicitly:

$\forall \epsilon,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; d(x_i,x_j) \lt \epsilon .$

The same definition immediately applies to an extended quasipseudometric space (aka a Lawvere metric space), or anything in between.

In a gauge space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if this condition is satisfied for each gauging distance separately. Explicitly:

$\forall d,\; \forall \epsilon,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; d(x_i,x_j) \lt \epsilon .$

In a Booij premetric space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if this condition is satisfied for the premetric for all positive rational numbers $\epsilon$. Explicitly:

$\forall \epsilon,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; x_i \sim_\epsilon x_j .$

In a uniform space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if an analogous condition is satisfied for each entourage $U$. Explicitly:

$\forall U,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,; x_i \approx_U x_j .$

In a preuniform space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if this condition is satisfied for each preuniformity $U$. Explicitly:

$\forall U,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; x_i \approx_U x_j .$

Generalizing both Booij premetric spaces and preuniform spaces, in a $T$-premetric space with set $T$, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if this condition is satisfied for each element $U \in T$. Explicitly:

$\forall U,\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; x_i \sim_U x_j .$

In a Cauchy space, a sequence $(x_i)_i$ is **Cauchy** if it generates a Cauchy filter. Explicitly:

$\{ A \;|\; \exists N,\; \forall i, j \geq N,\; x_i \in A \} \in \mathcal{C} ,$

where $\mathcal{C}$ is the collection of Cauchy filters that defines the structure of the Cauchy space.

All of the above are in fact special cases of this.

A multivalued sequence on a set $A$ is a function $f:\mathbb{N} \to \mathcal{P}(T)$ such that for every natural number $n \in \mathbb{N}$, $f(n)$ is an inhabited subset of $A$.

A multivalued sequence $x:\mathbb{N} \to \mathcal{P}(\mathbb{R})$ of real numbers is **Cauchy** if, for every positive number $\epsilon$, there exist a natural number $N$ such that for all $i, j \geq N$, there exist real numbers $a, b$ such that $x(i)(a)$ and $x(j)(b)$ holds and $\vert a - b \vert \lt \epsilon$.

In a metric space $S$, a multivalued sequence $x:\mathbb{N} \to \mathcal{P}(S)$ is **Cauchy** if, for every positive number $\epsilon$, there exist a natural number $N$ such that for all $i, j \geq N$, there exist elements $a, b \in S$ such that $x(i)(a)$ and $x(j)(b)$ holds and $d(a, b) \lt \epsilon$.

In a gauge space $S$, a multivalued sequence $x:\mathbb{N} \to \mathcal{P}(S)$ is **Cauchy** if, for every positive number $\epsilon$ and every gauge $d:S \times S \to \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$, there exist a natural number $N$ such that for all $i, j \geq N$, there exist elements $a, b \in S$ such that $x(i)(a)$ and $x(j)(b)$ holds and $d(a, b) \lt \epsilon$.

In a uniform space $S$, a multivalued sequence $x:\mathbb{N} \to \mathcal{P}(S)$ is **Cauchy** if, for every entourage $U$, there exist a natural number $N$ such that for all $i, j \geq N$, there exist elements $a, b \in S$ such that $x(i)(a)$ and $x(j)(b)$ holds and $a \approx_U b$.

A net is a generalization of a sequence; the definitions above serve to define a **Cauchy net** without any change, other than allowing $(x_i)_i$ to be a net. This is precisely the structure of a Cauchy space; instead of defining Cauchy nets in terms of Cauchy filters as above, we may equally well define a Cauchy filter to be a proper filter whose canonical net? is Cauchy.

Note that in a complete space, every Cauchy net has a limit, not just every Cauchy sequence. Rather, a space in which every Cauchy sequence converges is called **sequentially complete** or **sequentially Cauchy complete**. Note that a metric space (or even a Lawvere metric space) is in fact complete if it is sequentially complete (although this result is not valid in some weak foundations); in particular, the real line $\mathbf{R}$ is complete.

When Bill Lawvere idenitified Lawvere metric spaces with enriched categories over the closed monoidal poset $(\mathbf{R}^+,+)$, he identified Cauchy sequences in such spaces with certain adjunctions of bimodules, enough so that a metric space would be a Cauchy-complete space if and only if every adjunction of bimodules is induced by an enriched functor. Generalising this condition from $(\mathbf{R}^+,+)$ to an arbitrary closed monoidal category, we have the concept of Cauchy-complete category.

- Wikipedia,
*Cauchy sequence*

Last revised on May 26, 2023 at 02:00:23. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.