A locally constant sheaf $A$ over a topological space is a sheaf of sections of a covering space of $X$: there is a cover of $X$ by open subsets $\{U_i\}$ such that the restrictions $A|_{U_i}$ are constant sheaves.
More elegantly said: locally constant sheaves are the sections of constant stacks:
Let $C = Core(FinSet)\in$ Grpd be the core of the category FinSet of finite set, let $const_C : Op(X)^{op} \to Grpd$ the presheaf constant on $C$, i.e. the functor on the opposite category of the category of open subsets of $X$ that sends everything to (the identity on) $C$. Then the constant stack on $C$ is the stackification $\bar const_C : Op(X)^{op} \to Grpd$.
Write then $X$ for the space $X$ regarded as a sheaf or trivial covering space over itself, i.e. the terminal object $X$ in sheaves and hence in stacks over $X$. Then by definition of stackification morphisms
are represented by
an open cover $\{U_i\}$ of $X$;
over each $U_i$ a choice $F_i \in C$ of object in $C$, hence a finite set in $C$;
over each double overlap $U_{i j} = U_i \cap U_j$ an morphism $g_{i j} : F_i|_{I_{i j}} \stackrel{\simeq}{\to} F_j|_{U_{i j}}$, hence a bijection of finite sets;
such that on triple overlaps we have $g_{i k}|_{U_{i j k}}= g_{j k}|_{U_{i j k}}\circ g_{i j}|_{U_{i j k}}$.
Such data clearly is the local data for a covering space over $X$ with typical fiber any of the $F_i$.
Let $(\Delta \dashv \Gamma) : \mathcal{E} \stackrel{\overset{\Delta}{\leftarrow}}{\underset{\Gamma}{\to}} \mathcal{S}$ be the global section geometric morphism of a topos $\mathcal{E}$ over base $\mathcal{S}$.
Without further assumption on $\mathcal{E}$ we have the following definition.
For $U \to *$ an epimorphism in $\mathcal{E}$, an object $E \in \mathcal{E}$ is called locally constant and split by $U$ if in the over category $\mathcal{E}/U$ we have an isomorphism
for some $S \in$ Set.
An object which is locally constant and $U$-split for some $U$ is called locally constant.
A locally constant object $E$ which is in addition an $\Delta Aut(X)$-principal bundle is called a Galois object .
If $\mathcal{E}$ is a locally connected topos there is another characterization of locally constant sheaves.
For $C$ and $C$ cartesian closed categories, a functor $F : C \to D$ that preserves products is called a cartesian closed functor if the canonical natural transformation
(which is the adjunct of $F(A) \times F(B^A) \simeq F(A \times B^A) \to F(B)$) is an isomorphism.
From the discussion at locally connected topos we have that
The constant sheaf-functor $\Delta : \mathcal{S} \to \mathcal{E}$ is a cartesian closed functor precisely if $\mathcal{E}$ is a locally connected topos.
In this case the above definition is equivalent to the following one.
Let $\mathcal{E} = Sh(C)$ be a locally connected topos. Let $p : core(Set^\kappa_*) \to core(Set^\kappa)$ be the core of the generalized universal bundle for sets of cardinality less than some $\kappa$.
A locally constant $\kappa$-bounded object in $\mathcal{E}$ is the pullback of $\Delta(p)$ along a morphism $* \to core(Set^\kappa)$ in the (2,1)-topos $Sh_{(2,1)}(C)$.
This says that locally constant sheaves are the sections of the constant stack on the groupoid $core(Set^\kappa)$.
Notice that
where the coproduct is over all cardinals smaller than $\kappa$ and where $\mathbf{B}Aut(F_i)$ denotes the delooping groupoid of the automorphism group of the set $F_i$: the symmetric group on $F_i$.
This means that on each connected component of $\mathcal{E}$ a locally constant sheaf is the $\Delta \rho$-associated bundle to an $\Delta Aut(F)$-principal bundle induced by the canonical permutation representation $\rho : \mathbf{B} Aut(F) \to Set$ of the automorphism group $Aut(F)$ on $F$.
Specifically for $g : * \to \Delta \mathbf{B} Aut(F) \simeq \mathbf{B} \Delta Aut(F) \hookrightarrow \Delta core(set)$ the classifying morphism of a locally constant sheaf and for $U \to *$ an epimorphism on which it trivializes, we have a pasting diagram of pullbacks
where $F//Aut(F)$ is the action groupoid, the 2-colimit of $\rho \mathbf{B}Aut(F) \to Grpd$.
Locally constant sheaves are sheaves of sections of covering spaces.
When used as coefficient objects in cohomology they are also called local systems.
The action of the fundamental groupoid $\Pi_1(X)$ on the fibers of a local system give rise to the notion of monodromy.
This may be used to define homotopy groups of general objects in a topos, and the fundamental group of a topos.
This is the content of Galois theory.
In sufficiently highly locally connected cases, we have:
A locally constant function is a section of a constant sheaf;
a locally constant sheaf is a section of a constant stack;
a locally constant stack is a section of (… and so on…)
a locally constant ∞-stack is a section of a constant ∞-stack.
A locally constant sheaf / $\infty$-stack is also called a local system.
The definition of locally constant sheaf originates in the notion of covering projection
Lecture notes are in
The topos-theoretic definition is reproduced in the context of a discussion of the notion of Galois topos as definition 5.1.1 in
and definition 2.2 in
or as definition 1 in
Discussion of the notions of locally constant sheaves is at