# Contents

## Idea

In type theory, a dependent type or type in context is a family or bundle of types which vary over the elements (terms) of some other type. It can be regarded as a formalization of the notion of “indexed family,” providing a structural account of families (in contrast to the material approach which requires sets to be able to contain other sets as elements).

Type theory with the notion of dependent types is called dependent type theory.

In the categorical semantics of type theory, a dependent type

$x:A \; \vdash \;B(x):Type$

is represented by a particular morphism $p\colon B\to A$, the intended meaning being that each type $B(x)$ is the fiber of $p$ over $x\in A$. The morphism in a category may represent dependent types in this way are sometimes called display morphisms (especially when not every morphism is a display morphism).

## Examples

When the theory of a category is phrased in dependent type theory, there is one type ”$obj$” of objects, and a type $hom$ of morphisms which is dependent on two terms of type $obj$, so that for any $x,y:obj$ there is a type $hom(x,y)$ of arrows from $x$ to $y$. This dependency is usually written as $x,y:obj \vdash hom(x,y):Type$. In some theories, it makes sense to say that the type of ”$hom$” itself is $obj, obj\to Type$ (usually understood as $obj \to (obj \to Type)$ or $(\obj \times \obj) \to Type$), i.e. a function from pairs of elements of $A$ to the universe? $Type$ of types.

## References

In Coq:

• Yves Bertot, Introduction to dependent types in Coq (pdf)

Revised on September 28, 2012 16:51:41 by Urs Schreiber (82.169.65.155)