cleft extension

Let $H$ be a Hopf algebra, a right $H$-comodule algebra $E$ is an **$H$-extension** of a subalgebra $U\subset E$ if $U=E^{co H}$ is precisely the subalgebra of $H$-coinvariants. The $H$-extension $U\subset E$ is **cleft** if there exist a **convolution-invertible $H$-comodule map** $\gamma:H\to E$.

If $U\hookrightarrow E$ is a cleft $H$-extension, then the cleavage $\gamma$ can always be chosen normalized in the sense that $\gamma(1)=1$; because if it is not normalized we can rescale $\gamma$ to form a normalized cleavage $\gamma'=\gamma^{-1}(1)\gamma$ (indeed, $1$ is group-like, hence $\gamma(1)$ is invertible with inverse $(\gamma(1))^{-1}=\gamma^{-1}(1)$).

It is easy to show that the rule

$h\triangleright u := \sum \gamma(h_{(1)})u\gamma^{-1}(h_{(2)})$

defines a measuring $\triangleright:H\otimes U\to U$ i.e. $h\triangleright(uv)=\sum (h_{(1)}\triangleright u)(h_{(2)}\triangleright v)$ and if $\gamma$ is chosen normalized, then $h\triangleright 1 = \epsilon(h) 1$. Define a convolution invertible map $\sigma\in Hom_k(H\otimes H,U)$ by

$\sigma(h,k) = \sum \gamma(h_{(1)})\gamma(k_{(1)})\gamma^{-1}(h_{(2)}k_{(2)}),\,\,\,\,\,h,k\in H.$

Then the pair $(\triangleright,\sigma)$ defines the data for the **cocycled crossed product algebra** $U\sharp_\sigma H$ which is canonically isomorphic to $B$ as an $H$-extension of $U\cong U\otimes 1\hookrightarrow U\sharp_\sigma H$, and i.e. as a right $H$-comodule algebra with the isomorphism fixing $U$ as given.

Conversely, every cocycled product $U\sharp_\sigma H$ is cleft via $\gamma: h\mapsto 1\sharp h$ and the cocycle $\sigma$ built out of $\gamma$ is the same one, which helped build the cocycled crossed product.

Every cleft extension is a particular case of a Hopf-Galois extension.

* Y. Doi, M. Takeuchi, *Cleft comodule algebras for a bialgebra*, Comm. Alg. **14** (1986) 801–818 * S. Majid, *Foundations of quantum group theory*, Cambridge University Press 1995, 2000.

- S. Montgomery,
*Hopf algebras and their actions on rings*, CBMS 82, AMS 1993.

There are generalizations for Hopf algebroids:

- Gabriella Böhm, Tomasz Brzeziński,
*Cleft extensions of Hopf algebroids*, Appl. Cat. Str. 14 (2006) 431-469; math.QA/0510253

There are some globalizations of cleft extensions. For the smash product case of the globalization some details are written in

- Zoran Škoda,
*Čech cocycles for quantum principal bundles*, arxiv/1111.5316 - Z. Škoda, cleft extension of a space cover

Revised on November 23, 2011 04:47:38
by Zoran Škoda
(31.45.217.217)