The notion of weak bialgebra is a generalization of that of bialgebra in which the comultiplication $\Delta$ is weak in the sense that $\Delta(1)\neq 1\otimes 1$ in general; similarly the compatibility of counit with the multiplication map is weakened (counit might fail to be a morphism of algebras). (Still a special case of sesquialgebra.)
Correspondingly weak Hopf algebras generalize Hopf algebras accordingly. Every weak Hopf algebra defines a Hopf algebroid.
This kind of structures naturally comes in CFT models relation to quantum groups a root of unity: the full symmetry algebra is not quite a quantum group at root of unity, because if it were one would have to include the nonphysical quantum dimension zero finite-dimensional quantum group representations into the (pre)Hilbert space; those are the zero norm states which do not contribute to physics (like ghosts). If one quotients by these states then the true unit of a quantum group becomes an idempotent (projector), hence one deals with weak Hopf algebras instead as a price of dealing with true, physical, Hilbert space.
A weak bialgebra is a tuple $(A,\mu,\eta,\Delta,\epsilon)$ such that $(A,\mu,\eta)$ is an associative unital algebra, $(A,\Delta,\epsilon)$ is a coassociative counital coalgebra and the following compatibilities, (i),(ii) and (iii), hold:
(i) the coproduct $\Delta$ is multiplicative $\Delta(x)\Delta(y)= \Delta(x y)$. If only (i) is satisfied, following Böhm, Caenapeel and Janssen 2011, we may speak of a prebialgebra.
(ii) the counit $\epsilon$ satisfies weak multiplicativity
A prebialgebra satisfying the first (the second) of the above properties is said to be left (right) monoidal.
(iii) Weak comultiplicativity of the unit:
A prebialgebra satisfying the first (the second) of the above properties is said to be left (right) comonoidal.
As usually in the context of coassociative coalgebras, we denoted $\Delta^{(2)} := (id\otimes\Delta)\Delta = (\Delta\otimes id)\Delta$.
A weak $k$-bialgebra $A$ is a weak Hopf algebra if it has a $k$-linear map $S:A\to A$ (which is then called an antipode) such that for all $x\in A$
It follows that the antipode is antimultiplicative, $S(x y)=S(y)S(x)$, and anticomultiplicative, $\Delta(S(x)) = S(x)_{(1)}\otimes S(x)_{(2)} = S(x_{(2)})\otimes S(x_{(1)})$.
For every weak bialgebra there are $k$-linear maps $\Pi^L,\Pi^R:A\to A$ defined by
Expressions for $\Pi^L(x),\Pi^R(x)$ are already met above as the right hand sides in two of the axioms for the antipode. Maps $\Pi^L,\Pi^R$ are idempotents, $\Pi^R\Pi^R = \Pi^R$ and $\Pi^L\Pi^L = \Pi^L$:
Notice $\epsilon(x z) = \epsilon(x 1 z) = \epsilon(x 1_{(2)})\epsilon(1_{(1)}z)) = \epsilon(x \epsilon(1_{(1)}z))1_{(2)} = \epsilon(x\Pi^L(z)) = \epsilon(\Pi^R(x)z)$. The images of the idempotents $A^R = \Pi^R(A)$ and $A^L = \Pi^L(R)$ are dual as $k$-linear spaces: there is a canonical nondegenerate pairing $A^L\otimes A^R\to k$ given by $(x,y) \mapsto \epsilon(y x)$.
Also $\Pi^L(x\Pi^L(y)) = \Pi^L(x y)$ and $\Pi^R(\Pi^R(x)y) = \Pi^R(x y)$, dually $\Delta(A^L)\subset A\otimes A^L$ and $\Delta(A^R)\subset A^R\otimes A$, and in particular $\Delta(1)\in A^R\otimes A^L$.
Sometimes it is also useful to consider the idempotents $\bar\Pi^L,\bar\Pi^R:A\to A$ defined by
Under Tannaka duality (semisimple) weak Hopf algebras correspond to (multi-)fusion categories (Ostrik).
As explained in Hopf algebra, any finite-dimensional Hopf algebra can be given the structure of a Frobenius algebra. There is a similar result for weak Hopf algebras.
Any finite-dimensional weak Hopf algebra can be given the structure of a quasi-Frobenius algebra.
This is due to Bohm, Nill, and Szlachanyi (1999). While Vecsernyés (2003) seems to show that finite-dimensional weak Hopf algebras can be turned into Frobenius algebras, it is observed in Iovanov & Kadison (2008) that the proof only implies they are quasi-Frobenius algebras.
Weak comultiplications were introduced in
where also weak quasi-bialgebras are considered and physical motivation is discussed in detail. Further work in this vain is in
A book exposition is in chapter weak (Hopf) bialgebras in
Now these works are understood categorically from the point of view of weak monad theory:
The relation to fusion categories is discussed in
Takahiro Hayashi, A canonical Tannaka duality for finite semisimple tensor categories (arXiv:math/9904073)
Victor Ostrik, Module categories, weak Hopf algebras and modular invariants (arXiv:math/0111139)
On the relation to Frobenius algebras
Gabriella Bohm, Florian Nill?, Kornel Szlachanyi. Weak Hopf Algebras I: Integral Theory and $C^*$-structure. (1999). (arXiv:math/9805116)
Peter Vecsernyés?. Larson–Sweedler theorem and the role of grouplike elements in weak Hopf algebras. Journal of Algebra. Volume 270, Issue 2, 15 December 2003, Pages 471-520. (doi)
Miodrag Iovanov, Lars Kadison?. When weak Hopf algebras are Frobenius. (2008). (arXiv:0810.4777)
Last revised on August 18, 2023 at 21:48:58. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.