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This is a sub-entry of

see there for background and context.

This entry reviews basics of periodic multiplicative cohomology theories and their relation to formal group laws.


rough notes from a talk

the following are rough unpolished notes taken more or less verbatim from some seminar talk – needs attention

A complex oriented cohomology theory (meant is here and in all of the following a generalized (Eilenberg-Steenrod) cohomology) is one with a good notion of Thom classes, equivalently first Chern class for complex vector bundle

(this “good notion” will boil down to certain extra assumptions such as multiplicativity and periodicity etc. What one needs is that the cohomology ring assigned by the cohomology theory to P U(1)\mathbb{C}P^\infty \simeq \mathcal{B}U(1) is a power series ring. The formal variable of that is then identified with the universal first Chern class as seen by that theory).

ordinary Chern class lives in integral cohomology H *(,) H^*(-,\mathbb{Z})

or in K-theory K *()K^*(-) where for a vector bundle VV we would set c 1(V):=([V]1)βc_1(V) := ([V]-1)\beta where β\beta is the Bott generator.

In the first case we have that under tensor product of vector bundles the class behaves as

c 1(VW)=c 1(V)+c 1(W) c_1(V\otimes W) = c_1(V) + c_1(W)

whereas in the second case we get

c 1(VW)=c 1(V)c 1(W)β 1+c 1(V)+c 1(W). c_1(V \otimes W) = c_1(V)c_1(W)\beta^{-1} + c_1(V) + c_1(W) \,.

In general we will get that the Chern class of a tensor product is given by a certain power series E *(pt)E^*(pt)

not all formal group laws arises this way. the Landweber criterion gives a condition under which there is a cohomology theory

definition of complex-orientation

there is an

xE˜ 2(P ) x \in \tilde E^2(\mathbb{C}P^\infty)

such that under the map

E˜ 2(P )E˜ 2(P 1)E˜ 2(S 1)E 0(*) \tilde E^2(\mathbb{C}P^\infty) \to \tilde E^2(\mathbb{C}P^1) \simeq \tilde E^2(S^1) \simeq E^0({*})

induced by

P 1P \mathbb{C}P^1 \to \mathbb{C}P^\infty

we have x1x \mapsto 1

remark this also gives Thom classes since P (P ) γ\mathbb{C}P^\infty \to (\mathbb{C}P^\infty)^\gamma is a homotopy equivalence

E˜ 2((P ) γ)E˜ 2((P ))X \tilde E^2((\mathbb{C}P^\infty)^\gamma) \simeq \tilde E^2((\mathbb{C}P^\infty)) \ni X

Thom iso H˜ *+2(X γ)H *(X)\tilde H^{*+2}(X^\gamma) \simeq H^*(X)

(here and everywhere the tilde sign is for reduced cohomology)

definition (Bott element and even periodic cohomology theory)

Periodic cohomology theories are complex-orientable. E *(P )E^*(\mathbb{C}P^\infty) can be calculated using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence

H p(X,E q(*))E p+q(X) H^p(X, E^q({*})) \Rightarrow E^{p+q}(X)

notice that since P \mathbb{C}P^\infty is homotopy equivalent to the classifying space U(1)\mathcal{B}U(1) (which is a topological group) it has a product on it

P ×P P \mathbb{C}P^\infty \times \mathbb{C}P^\infty \to \mathbb{C}P^\infty

which is the one that induces the tensor product of line bundles classified by maps into P \mathbb{C}P^\infty.

on (at least on even periodic cohomology theories) this induces a map of the form

P ×P P E(*)[[x,y]] E(*)[[t]] f(x,y) | t \array{ \mathbb{C}P^\infty \times \mathbb{C}P^\infty &\to& \mathbb{C}P^\infty \\ E({*})[[x,y]] &\leftarrow& E(*)[[t]] \\ f(x,y) &\leftarrow |& t }

this ff is called a formal group law if the following conditions are satisfied

  1. commutativity f(x,y)=f(y,x)f(x,y) = f(y,x)

  2. identity f(x,0)=xf(x,0) = x

  3. associtivity f(x,f(y,z)) = f(f(x,y),z)

remark the second condition implies that the constant term in the power series ff is 0, so therefore all these power series are automatically invertible and hence there is no further need to state the existence of inverses in the formal group. So these ff always start as

f(x,y)=x+y+ f(x,y) = x + y + \cdots

The Lazard ring is the “universal formal group law”. it can be presented as by generators a ija_{i j} with i,ji,j \in \mathbb{N}

L=[a ij]/(relations13below) L = \mathbb{Z}[a_{i j}] / (relations 1-3 below)

and relatins as follows

  1. a ij=a jia_{i j} = a_{j i}

  2. a 10=a 01=1a_{10} = a_{01} = 1; i0:a i0=0\forall i \neq 0: a_{i 0} = 0

  3. the obvious associativity relation

the universal formal group law we get from this is the power series in x,yx,y with coefficients in the Lazard ring

(x,y)= i,ja ijx jy jL[[x,y]]. \ell(x,y) = \sum_{i,j} a_{i j} x^j y^j \in L[[x,y]] \,.

remark the formal group law is not canonically associated to the cohomology theory, only up to a choice of rescaling of the elements xx. But the underlying formal group is independent of this choice and well defined.

For any ring SS with formal group law g(x,y)powerseriesinx,ywithcoefficientsinSg(x,y) \in power series in x,y with coefficients in S there is a unique morphism LSL \to S that sends \ell to gg.

remark Quillen’s theorem says that the Lazard ring is the ring of complex cobordisms

some universal cohomology theories MUM U is the spectrum for complex cobordism cohomology theory. The corresponding spectrum is in degree 2n2 n given by

MU(2n)=Thom(standardassociatedbundletouniversalbundleEU(n) BU(n)) M U(2n) = Thom \left( standard associated bundle to universal bundle \array{ E U(n) \\ \downarrow \\ B U(n) } \right)

periodic complex cobordism cohomology theory is given by

MP= nΣ 2nMU M P = \vee_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \Sigma^{2 n} M U

we get a canonical orientation? from

ω:P MU(1)MU(P ) \omega : \mathbb{C}P^\infty \stackrel{\simeq}{\to} M U(1) \;\;\;\; M U(\mathbb{C}P^\infty)

this is the universal even periodic cohomology theory with orientation

Theorem (Quillen) the cohomology ring MP(*)M P(*) of periodic complex cobordism cohomology theory over the point together with its formal group law is naturally isomorphic to the universal Lazard ring with its formal group law (L,)(L,\ell)

how one might make a formal group law (R,f(x,y))(R,f(x,y)) into a cohomology theory

use the classifying map MP(*)RM P({*}) \to R to build the tensor product

E n(X):=MP n(X) MP(*)R E^n(X) := M P^n(X) \otimes_{M P({*})} R

this construction could however break the left exactness condition. However, EE built this way will be left exact of the ring morphism M P{{*}) \to R is a flat morphism. This is the Landweber exactness condition (or maybe slightly stronger).

Revised on March 19, 2010 18:39:44 by Anonymous Coward (