additive and abelian categories
(AB1) pre-abelian category
(AB2) abelian category
(AB5) Grothendieck category
left/right exact functor
and
nonabelian homological algebra
An additive category is a category which is
(sometimes called a pre-additive category–this means that each hom-set is an abelian group and composition is bilinear)
which admits finite coproducts
The natural morphisms between additive categories are additive functors.
A pre-abelian category is an additive category which also has kernels and cokernels. Equivalently, it is an Ab-enriched category with all finite limits and finite colimits. An especially important sort of additive category is an abelian category, which is a pre-abelian one satisfying the extra exactness property that all monomorphisms are kernels and all epimorphisms are cokernels. See at additive and abelian categories for more.
The Ab-enrichment of an additive category does not have to be given a priori. Every semiadditive category (a category with finite biproducts) is automatically enriched over commutative monoids (as described at biproduct), so an additive category may be defined as a category with finite biproducts whose hom-monoids happen to be groups. (The requirement that the hom-monoids be groups can even be stated in elementary terms without discussing enrichment at all, but to do so is not very enlightening.) Note that the entire $Ab$-enriched structure follows automatically for abelian categories.
Some authors use additive category to simply mean an Ab-enriched category, with no further assumptions. It can also be used to mean a $CMon$-enriched (commutative monoid enriched) category, with or without assumptions of products.
In any Ab-enriched category, any finite product is also a coproduct, and dually. This includes the zero-ary case: any terminal object is also an initial object, hence a zero object (and dually), hence additive category have a zero object.
Such products which are also coproducts are sometimes called biproducts and sometimes direct sums; they are absolute limits for $Ab$-enrichment.
The coincidence of products with biproducts does not extend to infinite products and coproducts.) In fact, an Ab-enriched category is Cauchy complete just when it is additive and moreover its idempotents split.
Discussion of model category structures on additive categories is around def. 4.3 of