factorization system over a subcategory
k-ary factorization system, ternary factorization system
factorization system in a 2-category
factorization system in an (∞,1)-category
(2,1)-quasitopos?
structures in a cohesive (∞,1)-topos
equivalences in/of $(\infty,1)$-categories
The $n$-connected/$n$-truncated factorization system is an orthogonal factorization system in an (∞,1)-category, specifically in an (∞,1)-topos, that generalizes the relative Postnikov systems of ∞Grpd: it factors any morphism through its (n+2)-image by an (n+2)-epimorphism followed by an (n+2)-monomorphism.
As $n$ ranges through $(-1), 0, 1, 2, 3, \cdots$ these factorization systems form an ∞-ary factorization system.
Let $\mathbf{H}$ be an (∞,1)-topos. For all $(-2) \leq n \leq \infty$ the class of n-truncated morphisms in $\mathbf{H}$ forms the right class in a orthogonal factorization system in an (∞,1)-category. The left class is that of n-connected morphisms in $\mathbf{H}$.
This appears as a remark in HTT, Example 5.2.8.16. A construction of the factorization in terms of a model category presentation is in (Rezk, prop. 8.5).
For $n = -1$ this says that effective epimorphisms in an (∞,1)-category have the left lifting property against monomorphisms in an (∞,1)-category. Therefore one may say that the effective epimorphisms in an $(\infty,1)$-topos are the strong epimorphisms.
For all $n$, the $n$-connected/$n$-truncated factorization system is stable: the class of n-connected morphisms is preserved under (∞,1)-pullback.
This appears as (Lurie, prop. 6.5.1.16(6)).
For all $n$, n-images are preserved by (∞,1)-pullback.
A (-2)-truncated morphism is precisely an equivalence in an (∞,1)-category (see there or HTT, example 5.5.6.13).
Moreover, every morphism is (-2)-connected.
Therefore for $n = -2$ the $n$-connected/$n$-truncated factorization system says (only) that equivalences have inverses, unique up to coherent homotopy.
A (-1)-truncated morphism is precisely a full and faithful morphism.
A (-1)-connected morphism is one whose homotopy fibers are inhabited.
In ∞Grpd a morphism between 0-truncated objects (sets)
is full and faithful precisely if it is an injection;
has non-empty fibers precisely if it is an epimorphism.
Therefore between 0-truncated objects the (-1)-connected/(-1)-truncated factorization system is the epi/mono factorization system and hence image factorization.
Generally, the (-1)-connected/(-1)-truncated factorization is through the $\infty$-categorical 1-image, the homotopy image (see there for more details).
Let $X,Y$ be two groupoids (homotopy 1-types) in ∞Grpd.
A morphism $X \to Y$ is 0-truncated precisely if it is a faithful functor.
A morphism $X \to Y$ is 0-connected precisely if it is a full functor and an essentially surjective functor.
Therefore on homotopy 1-types the 0-connected/0-truncated factorization system is the (eso+full, faithful) factorization system.
The general abstract statement is in
A model category-theoretic discussion is in section 8 of
Disucssion in homotopy type theory is in