Background
Basic concepts
equivalences in/of $(\infty,1)$-categories
Universal constructions
Local presentation
Theorems
Extra stuff, structure, properties
Models
Homotopy realizations are a special case of homotopy colimits, when the indexing diagram is $\Delta^{op}$, the opposite category of the category of simplices.
Homotopy realizations can be defined in any relative category, just like homotopy colimits, but practical computations are typically carried out in presence of additional structures such as model structures, in fact, enriched model categories are the most common setup.
In any $V$-enriched model category, the homotopy realization of a simplicial object
can be computed in three different ways, all of which use the notion of tensor product of functors (i.e., weighted colimits).
Specifically, consider the functor
that takes the tensor product of functors, i.e., the weighted colimit, where $V$ is the monoidal model category over which $C$ is enriched.
If we set the first argument to the constant functor with value $1$ (the monoidal unit of $V$), then the resulting functor is the colimit functor $C^{\Delta^{op}}\to C$.
The functor $\otimes$ becomes a left Quillen bifunctor if we equip $V^\Delta$ and $C^{\Delta^{op}}$ with one of the three following pairs of model structures:
Accordingly, the homotopy realization of a simplicial object $X\colon \Delta^{op}\to C$ can be computed as follows.
Cofibrant resolutions in the injective model structure can be computed by applying some cofibrant resolution functor of $C$ objectwise.
Cofibrant resolutions in the Reedy model structure can be computed inductively, by repeatedly factoring the latching map of $X$ as a cofibration followed by a weak equivalence and adjusting $X$ accordingly.
Cofibrant resolutions in the projective model structure can be computed explicitly in some practical examples.
The inclusion of the category of semisimplices (i.e., fininite inhabited totally ordered sets and injective order-preserving maps) into the category of simplices (with the injectivity condition dropped) is a homotopy initial functor, i.e., restricting along the inclusion of opposite categories preserves homotopy colimits.
Thus, homotopy realizations can be computed as homotopy colimits over the opposite category of semisimplices. The latter category is a direct category, which makes cofibrancy conditions particularly easy.
A Reedy cofibrant replacement of the constant weight $1\colon \Delta\to sSet$ can be computed as the Yoneda embedding $Y_\Delta\colon\Delta\to sSet$.
The Reedy model structure on simplicial objects in simplicial sets with simplicial weak equivalences coincides with the injective model structure, as explained in the article elegant Reedy category. In particular, all objects are cofibrant.
Thus, the homotopy realization of
can be computed as
which is isomorphic to the diagonal of $X$.
For chain complexes with quasi-isomorphisms (which we equip with the injective model structure on chain complexes), a computation analogous to the one for simplicial sets above Reedy cofibrantly resolves the constant weight as
where $\mathrm{N}$ denotes the normalized chains functor and $\mathbf{Z}[-]$ denotes the free simplicial abelian group functor.
Once again, all simplicial objects in chain complexes are Reedy cofibrant.
Thus, the homotopy realization of $X\colon \Delta^{op} \to Ch$ can be computed as
which is isomorphic to the direct sum total complex of the double chain complex obtained by applying the Dold–Kan correspondence to the simplicial object $X\colon \Delta^{op}\to Ch$.
Consider topological spaces with weak homotopy equivalences. Below, we use the Serre model structure.
The topological simplex $\mathbf{\Delta}\colon \Delta\to Top$ is Reedy cofibrant as a cosimplicial topological space.
Not all simplicial objects in topological spaces are Reedy cofibrant, since the latching map need not be a cofibration of topological spaces, i.e., a retract of a relative cellular map.
However, we can pass to the semisimplicial setting, as explained above. In this, case Reedy cofibrancy boils down to the objectwise cofibrancy.
Thus, the homotopy realization of $X\colon \Delta^{op} \to Top$ can be computed as
where $Q$ denotes objectwise cofibrant replacement. This is precisely the classical fat geometric realization of simplicial topological spaces.
For the case of chain complexes, see
Last revised on October 5, 2023 at 18:01:24. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.