indiscernible sequence?
Morley sequence?
Ramsey theorem?
Erdos-Rado theorem?
Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé games (back-and-forth games)
Hrushovski construction?
generic predicate?
In any context it is interesting to ask when a contravariant hom-functor $\operatorname{Hom}(-,X)$ reflects isomorphisms, i.e. if homming into an object is enough to distinguish isomorphism classes. In a $2$-categorical setting, the analogous question is if homming into an object reflects equivalences.
Conceptual completeness refers to the result of Makkai and Reyes that in the $2$-category $\mathbf{Pretop}$ of pretoposes, homming into the pretopos Set $\operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(-,\mathbf{Set}) : \mathbf{Pretop} \to \mathbf{Cat}$ reflects equivalences.
That is, if $f : T_1 \to T_2$ is a pretopos morphism and $- \circ f : \operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(T_2, \mathbf{Set}) \to \operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(T_1,\mathbf{Set})$ is an equivalence, then $f$ was also. Pretopos morphisms are just interpretations of theories; a pretopos morphism into Set is an interpretion of the source theory into the internal logic of Set, and is therefore a model.
Since pretoposes are just effectivizations of syntactic categories of first-order theories, this means: if a functor between the categories of models of $T_1$ and $T_2$ is an equivalence and is induced by an interpretation $T_1 \to T_2$, then that interpretation must be part of a bi-interpretation, i.e. $T_1$ and $T_2$ are equivalent as syntactic categories via pretopos morphisms.
Makkai duality states that $\operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(-,X)$ factors through the $2$-category of ultracategories (categories equipped with ultraproduct functors?) (which also contains $\mathbf{Set}$) and that $\operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(-,\mathbf{Set})$ is left-adjoint to $\mathbf{Hom}_{\mathbf{Ult}}(-,\mathbf{Set})$.
Furthermore, the unit of this adjunction is an equivalence, so that a pretopos $T$ is equivalent to the category of ultrafunctors (ultraproduct-preserving functors) from $\mathbf{Mod}(T)$ to $\mathbf{Set}$, i.e. any ultrafunctor $\mathbf{Mod}(T) \to \mathbf{Set}$ is induced by taking points in models of some definable set $X \in T$.
This means: when viewed as a functor to the $2$-category of ultracategories instead, $\operatorname{Hom}_{\mathbf{Pretop}}(-,\mathbf{Set})$ creates equivalences also, so that the pretopos/theory $T$ can be reconstructed up to bi-interpretability from its ultracategory of models. This is what is known as strong conceptual completeness.
In his AMS monograph on duality and definability in first-order logic, Makkai refined the above reconstruction result to work with just the (ultra) core of the ultracategory of models of $T$. Awodey and his students replace the ultracategory structure on this groupoid with a related topology instead; this is the “spectral groupoid” which forms the basis of the logical scheme approach.
(Maybe I’ll add some explicit computations later.)
Michael Makkai and Gonzalo Reyes, First order categorical logic: Model-theoretical methods in the theory of topoi and related categories, Springer-Verlag, 1977.
Michael Makkai, Strong Conceptual Completeness for First-Order Logic , APAL 40 (1988) pp.167-215. (freely available online)
Peter Johnstone, Sketches of an Elephant vol. II , Oxford UP 2002. (sec. D3.5, pp.931-939)
Jacob Lurie, Ultracategories, (pdf)
An approach which reframes conceptual completeness in terms of logical schemes is adopted in section 4.4 of
For the $(\infty, 1)$-analog of conceptual completeness, see section A.9 of
Last revised on January 8, 2019 at 13:52:52. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.