Synthetic domain theory, as its name suggests, is a synthetic axiomatization of domain theory, typically in toposes. The slogan for synthetic domain theory is that “domains are sets”, or more precisely, “domains are certain intuitionistic sets” in that one works in an intuitionistic set theory with certain anti-classical axioms and defines a notion of domain internally. These synthetic domains act like the analytic notions in that domains support arbitrary fixed points and solutions to non-well-founded recursive domain equations.
Specific axioms of SDT vary, but a category for synthetic domain theory is typically a topos equipped with a dominance $\Sigma$. From this dominance, a $\Sigma$-partial map classifier can be constructed called the “lift” monad $L A$. The lift monad has initial and final algebras (as a functor, rather than a monad) called $\omega$ and $\overline\omega$ respectively, with an induced monomorphism $\omega \to \overline \omega$. Then it is required that the induced function $\Sigma^{\overline \omega} \to \Sigma^\omega$ has an inverse.
An intuition is that maps out of $\omega$ are a synthetic notion of $\omega$-chains (as in $\omega$-CPOs) and maps out of $\overline \omega$ are $\omega$-chains with a limit point. Requiring the inverse above then amounts to requiring that every chain in $\Sigma$ has a unique limit point.
There are two main classes of models of synthetic domain theory: realizability toposes and Grothendieck toposes.
A Grothendieck topos model that is very closely related to the analytic notion of $\omega$-CPO is given by taking sheaves with respect to the canonical topology on the full subcategory of $\omega$-CPO whose objects are finite products of $\overline \omega$, i.e., the ordinal $\omega + 1$. This model embeds $\omega$-CPO and the embedding preserves (among other things) limits, coproducts and the natural numbers object. The $\omega$-CPOs can be characterized as certain $\neg\neg$-separated sheaves.
Martin Hyland, First Steps in Synthetic Domain Theory, Category Theory. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol 1488 (pdf)
Marcelo Fiore and Gordon Plotkin, An extension of models of Axiomatic Domain Theory to models of Synthetic Domain Theory, CSL 1996 (doi)
Marcelo Fiore and Giuseppe Rosolini, The Category of Cpos From a Synthetic Viewpoint, ENTCS Vol 6, 1997, (doi80165-3))
Marcelo Fiore and Giuseppe Rosolini, Two models of synthetic domain theory, Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra, Volume 116, Issues 1–3, 28 March 1997, (doi00164-8))
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