Our previous article, Retaining Wall: A Design Approach discusses the principle and concept behind and when and where to consider a retaining wall in our design.

We have learned the different checks against the mode of failures in the retaining wall should be considered in the design. To further understand the designed approach, here is a worked example of the design of the retaining wall.

This example is intended to be readily calculated by hand although a lot of structural spreadsheets and software such as Prokon are available.

The purpose of this article is for the reader to fully understand the principle behind it.

### Hinge mechanisms

Figure A. Consider the cantilever retaining wall with the cross-section shown in the above Figure A. Analytical Geometry and Variables. Before we proceed with the design, it is important for the designer to know the geometric variable and parameters of the retaining wall. Refer to Figure A. The next thing to consider is the assumptions that we can make in terms of the geometry of the retaining wall that we are designing.

Given the height, H of the retaining wall, we can assume or counter check our initial design considerations should at least according to the following geometric proportions:. Based on the above approximate geometric proportions, let us assumed the following parameters to be used in our design:. Sketches of the retaining wall forces should be considered to properly distinguish the different forces acting on our retaining wall as tackled in the previous article, Retaining Wall: A Design Approach.

Tw cen mt condensed extra bold downloadBased on our example in Figure A. Considering the Figure A. Notice that the pressures acting on the wall are equivalent to the area triangle of the pressure distribution diagram.

According to Rankine and Coulomb Formula, the following are the equation in calculating the coefficient of pressure:. There are two checks to consider the stability of the retaining wall. One is the check for an overturning moment and the other one is the check for sliding.

The weight of the retaining wall including the gravity loads within it plays a vital role in performing the stability check. The self-weight component of the retaining wall should be factored down or to be multiplied by weight reduction factor 0. With reference to the Figure A. The sliding check should be carried out with reference to the Figure A. The nominal shear is equal to the lateral forces on the retaining wall, neglecting the effect of passive pressure which will give us:.

For the thickness of the wall to be safe in shear, the ultimate shear, V u should less than the allowable shear, V allow as recommended by the ACI code. The foundation bearing capacity usually governs the design of the wall. The soil, particularly under the toe of the foundation, is working very hard to resist the vertical bearing loads, sliding shear, and to provide passive resistance to sliding.

The bearing capacity of the soil should be calculated taking into account the effect of simultaneous horizontal loads applied to the foundation from the soil pressure. For the footing to be safe in soil pressure, the maximum soil pressure under working load shall be less than the allowable soil bearing capacity.

The maximum soil bearing pressure under the footing considering 1m strip is:. If q umin is in tension check the required length otherwise ignore if it is in compression.

The presented calculations above are actually too tiring to perform manually especially if you are doing a trial and error design.The elbow lever is a position where the body is held up horizontal to the ground. This makes the skill much easier than a planche. This hand orientation is essential in balancing the skill correctly. Well, as I mentioned before, your body is resting and balancing ON your elbows. In order to do this, you need to learn the correct place to put your elbows.

The picture below shows a single elbow stab into the correct position. It should feel like your elbow is sitting into a groove.

Gzdoom change soundfontOf course, this is also a good stretch to do if you find inflexibility is making the elbow stab difficult. When your elbows are stabbed, your arms will be parallel or turned slightly outwards. If you try this skill on a set of parallettes or rings, your arms will definitely turn outwards, forming a trapezoid in the empty space. If you find your elbows slipping off your stomach, there are two things you can do.

First is to work on your flexibility with the stretches I showed above. The second is to put your hands slightly farther apart. By doing this, the base of that trapezoid space between your hands is longer and the sides of the trapezoid your arms must lean at a sharper angle in order to meet the top of the trapezoid your stomach.

Hp t520 hpgl driverIf you are still having problems getting your elbows into position. You can also hunch your back over. I find this helps in getting the elbows into the right position. Whether you start with your body in a straighter position, or hunched over is unimportant if you can extend into the elbow lever in the end. This will lift you off the ground and into position.

There are three main points to remember when extending into the elbow lever. Really work to extend as high as you can. Try not to bend your knees though. Elaboration of this point follows. Will developing this level also help in achieving the planche? The elbow lever has very little carryover to the planche. You are better off practicing the handstand press with straight arms.

That will develop the strength that you need. The elbow lever is quite easy compared to a planche. Hi I would like to thank you for all the awesome tutorials on this site. Now that i have learned how to do an elbow lever, I would like to ask you if you could make a planche tutorial. I am interested in this accomplishment and imo you would be the best one to ask for advice on how to do it.The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides if they are not parallel; otherwise there are two pairs of bases.

A scalene trapezoid is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, [3] in contrast to the special cases below. This article uses the term trapezoid in the sense that is current in the United States and Canada. In many languages also using a word derived from the Greek, the form used is the one closest to trapeziumnot to trapezoid e. The term trapezoid was once defined as a quadrilateral without any parallel sides in Britain and elsewhere.

However, this particular sense is considered obsolete. A trapezium in Proclus' sense is a quadrilateral having one pair of its opposite sides parallel. This was the specific sense in England in the 17th and 18th centuries, and again the prevalent one in recent use outside North America.

A trapezium as any quadrilateral more general than a parallelogram is the sense of the term in Euclid. Confusingly, the word trapezium was sometimes used in England from c.

This is now obsolete in England, but continues in North America. However this shape is more usually and less confusingly just called an irregular quadrilateral. There is some disagreement whether parallelogramswhich have two pairs of parallel sides, should be regarded as trapezoids. Some define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral having only one pair of parallel sides the exclusive definitionthereby excluding parallelograms. The latter definition is consistent with its uses in higher mathematics such as calculus.

This article uses the inclusive definition and considers parallelograms as special cases of a trapezoid. This is also advocated in the taxonomy of quadrilaterals.

## Centroid of trapezoid

Under the inclusive definition, all parallelograms including rhombusesrectangles and squares are trapezoids. Rectangles have mirror symmetry on mid-edges; rhombuses have mirror symmetry on vertices, while squares have mirror symmetry on both mid-edges and vertices. A right trapezoid also called right-angled trapezoid has two adjacent right angles. An acute trapezoid has two adjacent acute angles on its longer base edge, while an obtuse trapezoid has one acute and one obtuse angle on each base.

An isosceles trapezoid is a trapezoid where the base angles have the same measure.Everyone has seen how the car windscreen wipers sweep the water away quickly But did you ever think about how they work? There is only one fixed point, it is attached to the long arm of a lever with a brush that adheres to the glass.

If there is an engine that can operate this mechanism, it must turn in one direction, then stop suddenly and turn in the opposite direction. But how it is actually built on the wiper mechanism? If you open the hood you can see that the wiper motor always rotates in the same way, all the time when it is activated. But it is a planar hinge mechanism, called windscreen trapezoidthat rotates now in one direction, now in the opposite one.

What is a planar hinges mechanism? In short, it is made of bars of different lengths arranged on a plane and connected at their ends by nails. In practice we encounter them everywhere. The research on hinges mechanism in mathematics began at the time of the invention of the steam engine by James Watt and continue in our time. In the films of the Hinges mechanisms Section we will see some interesting facts of the history of the development of the hinges mechanisms.

Since James Watt invented the steam engine there was a problem of transforming rotary motion of one hinge into the perfect straight-line motion of another. This problem was unsolved for long time. And only beautiful mathematics helped finally to solve it.

Lift the sheet and leave it fall randomly on the table without turning round. To match initial and final positions one almost surely just need to rotate the sheet around some point to some angle!

The problem of the division of an arbitrary angle into three equal angles using only compass and straightedge was proved impossible. But there exists a plane linkage that solve this problem. It might seem that a flat hinge mechanism must operate unambiguously. However, as paradoxical mechanism shows, this is not always the case.

And the reason is the singular point. Or there are mechanisms whose number of degrees of freedom is variable?To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Fraol Fikru.

A section which is plane before bending remains plane after bending. This implies strains across section are linearly varying. This is true for most section of flexural member except deep beam where shear deformation is significant.

Beam section behaves elastically when subjected to service load moment. This implies stress in the concrete varies linearly from zero at neutral axis to a maximum at the extreme fiber.

Tensile strength of concrete is ignored.

Coconut emulsifierThe reinforcement assumed to takes all the tension due to flexure. Perfect bond exist between steel bars and concrete such that no slip occurs. This is possible if adequate development length of bars and concrete cover are provided.

In doubly reinforced sections, to consider creep of concrete in compression zone an effective modular ratio of 2 Es Ec shall be used to transform compression reinforcement for stress computation. The convenient moment center is taken usually the line of action of the internal forces.

In this section, the maximum stresses in both the reinforcement and the concrete reach simultaneously the respective permissible value. Such failure is sudden and occurs without warning. For this reasons, over-reinforced section is not recommended in design. In such sections, the tensile reinforcement is insufficient to develop the full strength of the concrete in compression, so that when the reinforcement is fully stressed, the concrete is under-stressed.

As when steel is over-stressed, the steel yields but is still able to support the yield stress since steel is a ductile material. For beams and slabs, the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided that the minimum depth required by deflection specified by code is maintained. ACI code provide minimum depth required by beams and one-way slabs in terms of span length as given in table below can be used as a crude estimate of initial depth to control deflection.

That is, the applied moment is greater than the balanced moment capacity of singly reinforced section.During these challenging times, we guarantee we will work tirelessly to support you. We will continue to give you accurate and timely information throughout the crisis, and we will deliver on our mission — to help everyone in the world learn how to do anything — no matter what. Thank you to our community and to all of our readers who are working to aid others in this time of crisis, and to all of those who are making personal sacrifices for the good of their communities.

We will get through this together. Updated: October 2, References.

Index of data recoveryA trapezoid, also known as a trapezium, is a 4-sided shape with two parallel bases that are different lengths. If you only know the side lengths of a regular trapezoid, you can break the trapezoid into simple shapes to find the height and finish your calculation. When you're finished, just label your units! To find the area of a trapezoid, start by adding together the length of the bases, which are the 2 sides of the trapezoid that are parallel with each other.

Then, multiply that number by the height of the trapezoid. Finish by dividing the product by 2 to find the area. For example, if one of the trapezoid's bases is 8 inches long and the other one is 12 inches long, first you'd add those together and get 20 inches. Then, if the trapezoid's height was 10 inches, you'd add that to 20 and get Just divide 30 by 2 to get 15, which is the area of the trapezoid. To learn how to calculate the area of a trapezoid if you only know the sides, scroll down!

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**Ch 8 - Torque - Calculating Lever Arm and Torque**

Related Articles.Since the very beginnings of the industry, bells have been closely associated with railroading. The horse-drawn railways of the 's hung small bells on horses' bridles to indicate their presence, and bells were used -- and continue to be used -- on virtually all steam and diesel locomotives. In his book "Railroad Collectibles", Baker writes, "Aboutbells became standard equipment on engines, but their main function was to warn both humans and animals to watch out for the coming train.

In the very early days, a man on horseback rode ahead of the locomotive waving a flag and shouting 'The train is coming. When President Lincoln's body was carried by train from Chicago to Springfield inthe engine's muffled bell tolled the entire distance. When a locomotive was scrapped, the bell, along with maybe the whistle and builder's plates, were often the only items salvaged. Some salvaged bells had a second working life in churches, camps, farms and factories, while others were simply used for presentation or ornamental purposes.

More than one railroad official had a polished locomotive bell decorating his office. While some bells were lost to metal scrap drives during the world wars, many have survived to become a specialty item for contemporary railroadiana collectors. Bells and their accompanying cradles can weigh hundreds of pounds, and it's a good guess that attempts to move a heavy bell have been responsible for more than one medical bill. However, few railroad artifacts match the presence and beauty of a gleaming, polished locomotive bell.

And few railroadiana items -- with maybe the exception of whistles -- can so dramatically announce a collector's love of railroads to the entire neighborhood. Above middle left. The bell is 12" in diameter and 9" tall to the top plus 3" for the stem.

T his bell was mounted in a frame mount on the locomotive. Click here for a picture of the SDthe bell being barely visible behind the fuel tank.

Hauptwerk 5 forumAbove far right. Above far left. A horse bell marked "A.

The bell is 31" tall not counting the base which was made by a collector for display. Above middle and far right. Two views of a massive collection of locomotive bells, most from the Great Northern Railway.

Home Contact Us. What's it Worth? Collection Breakup Selling Online. A small bell from a horse-drawn trolley. It is marked C. Photo by madeleines

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