topology (point-set topology, point-free topology)
see also algebraic topology, functional analysis and topological homotopy theory
Basic concepts
fiber space, space attachment
Extra stuff, structure, properties
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
Examples
Basic statements
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
continuous metric space valued function on compact metric space is uniformly continuous
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
locally compact and second-countable spaces are sigma-compact
Theorems
Analysis Theorems
The classifying topos of a localic groupoid $\mathcal{G}$ is a an incarnation of a localic groupoid (possibly a topological groups) in the category of toposes. At least in good cases, geometric morphisms into it classify $\mathcal{G}$-groupoid principal bundles, whence the name
A localic groupoid is a groupoid object $\mathcal{G} = (\mathcal{G}_1 \stackrel{\to}{\to} \mathcal{G}_0)$ internal to locales/Grothendieck-(0,1)-toposes. If both $\mathcal{G}_0$ and $\mathcal{G}_1$ happen to be spatial locales, hence topological spaces, then this is a topological groupoid
Let $N_\bullet \mathcal{G} : \Delta^{op} \to Locales$ be the simplicial object in locales given by the nerve of $\mathcal{G}$. By applying the sheaf topos functor $Sh : Locale \to Topos$ to this, we obtain a simplicial topos $Sh(N \mathcal{G}) : [n] \mapsto Sh(N_n \mathcal{G})$. Let $tr_2 Sh(N \mathcal{G})$ be its 2-truncation, then the 2-colimit
in the 2-category Topos is called the classifying topos of $\mathcal{G}$.
This has a more explicit description along the lines discussed at sheaves on a simplicial topological space:
For $E \in Sh(\mathcal{G}_0)$ a sheaf on the topological space of its objects, say that a $\mathcal{G}_1$-action on $E$ is a continuous groupoid action of $\mathcal{G}_\bullet$ on the etale space $Sp(E) \to \mathcal{G}_0$ over $\mathcal{G}_0$ that corresponds to the sheaf $E$, hence for each morphisms $f \colon x \to x$ in $\mathcal{G}$ a continuous function $\rho(f) \colon Sp(E)_x \to Sp(E)_y$ that satisfies the usual action property. These sheaves with $\mathcal{G}_1$-action and with the evident homomorphisms between them form a category, and this is $Sh(\mathcal{G})$.
Proposition (Joyal-Tierney 84)
For every Grothendieck topos $\mathcal{E}$ there is a localic groupoid $\mathcal{G}$ such that $\mathcal{E} \simeq Sh(\mathcal{G})$.
Proposition (Moerdijk 88, theorem 5)
This construction extends to an equivalence of 2-categories between that of Grothendieck toposes Topos and a localization of that of localic groupoids.
Proposition (Butz-Moerdijk 98) If $\mathcal{E}$ has enough points, then there exists in fact a topological groupoid $\mathcal{G}$ such that $\mathcal{E} \simeq Sh(\mathcal{G})$.
The original result for localic groupoids and arbitrary Grothendieck toposes is due to
The above equivalence of categories can in fact be lifted to an equivalence between the bicategory of localic groupoids, complete flat bispaces, and their morphisms and the bicategory of Grothendieck toposes, geometric morphisms, and natural transformations. The equivalence is implemented by the classifying topos functor, as explained in
Ieke Moerdijk, The classifying topos of a continuous groupoid I , Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Volume 310, Number 2, (1988) (pdf)
Ieke Moerdijk, The classifying topos of a continuous groupoid II, Cahiers de topologie et géométrie différentielle catégoriques 31, no. 2 (1990), 137–168.
The restriction to topological groupoids and Grothendieck toposes with enough points is due to