The Cantor–Schroeder–Bernstein theorem says that the usual order relation on cardinalities of sets is antisymmetric. In other words, define an order on sets by if there exists a monomorphism . Then, if both and , there exists an isomorphism of sets .
The result is really only interesting in the absence of the axiom of choice (). With , it is a trivial corollary of the well-ordering theorem. However, the theorem actually requires only excluded middle, although it does not hold in constructive mathematics.
We prove that the Cantor–Schroeder–Bernstein theorem holds in a Boolean topos. The theorem is not however intuitionistically valid, in that it fails in some toposes, such as the topos (the arrow category of ); see Example 2 below.
First, let’s try a little pedagogy. Somehow functions are to be cooked up from injections and , so we might guess is to be defined as at least part of the time, and as another part of the time. An ideal situation would be to have a set-up
where are complementary subsets in and are complementary subsets in ; then could be defined as on and as on , and everything works out fine. How can we achieve this?
If we have this situation, then apparently (the direct image of ), and (the complement of ), and then , and finally are required to be complementary, so we would need
In other words, would be a fixed point of a suitable operation built from direct image and complementation operators. In fact, if we find such a fixed point , then the plan above would work without a hitch.
Perhaps the simplest fixed-point theorem for this purpose on the market is
Let be an order-preserving map. Then there exists in for which .
Let be the (internal) intersection of . Since for every in , we have for every in . Hence by definition of . Applying again, we get . Hence belongs to . But then by definition of .
The preceding proof is valid in any topos (and so holds for even intuitionistically). It can be seen as a specialization to posets of a result of Lambek on the initial algebra of an endofunctor, saying that the structure maps of such initial algebras are necessarily isomorphisms. Here the initial algebra is (by construction) an initial fixed point.
is order-preserving, and so has a fixed point by the Knaster-Tarski lemma. Now define by the rule
(the multi-line definition is where we use the Boolean condition). The second line makes sense because is in the image of . The inverse of is
That is inverse to uses the fact that . The rest is obvious.
This classic proof is substantially the proof given in Johnstone’s Elephant, D4.1.11. The Boolean condition is not strictly speaking necessary, i.e., the principle of excluded middle () does not logically follow from the Cantor–Schroeder–Bernstein statement since, for example, the latter holds vacuously (every mono is an iso) in the non-Boolean topos
where is any nontrivial finite category. But is certainly the most natural supposition to make.
In some schools of thought, the proof using the Knaster-Tarski lemma would be criticized because that lemma makes use of an impredicative construction. However, the application made of it in the proof of the CSB theorem is only to ensure that the operator has a fixed point. This objection can be countered by shopping around for a different fixed-point theorem, one which is predicatively and constructively valid.
A time-honored way of constructing a fixed point of an operator is by taking a limit of a sequence of iterates of that converges, provided that preserves the limit. To this end, we find that specializing Adámek’s theorem (see initial algebra of an endofunctor) suits our purposes perfectly.
If is monic, then the operator preserves limits of inverse chains (i.e. intersections of decreasing sequences).
More generally, preserves connected limits, because it lifts through the inclusion to an isomorphism (here denotes the top element of , aka ), and preserves connected limits.
In more detail: by Frobenius reciprocity, we have for elements of and of . Putting , we get , and so the composite
is the identity. But since is monic, is also the identity, which completes the proof.
preserves colimits of -chains.
Naturally the left adjoint also preserves such colimits. So by the corollary, the composite preserves colimits of -chains.
Putting now (the bottom element of ), , and generally
we have (apply the monotone operator to the inclusion ), and so preserves the union of the chain ,
which implies that is a fixed point of , as desired. In fact this is the minimal fixed point, just as in the conclusion of the Knaster-Tarski lemma. (Cf. initial algebra of an endofunctor, especially Adámek’s theorem.)
The preceding proofs are sometimes considered too abstract to easily visualize, but this is slightly misleading: the second proof, involving the construction of a maximal fixed point as a countable limit, can be “beta-reduced” to produce one of the standard “concrete” proofs.
In a nutshell, the minimal fixed point of the operator can be expressed as an alternating series of iterated direct images:
where stands for set-theoretic difference and stands for the union . The meaning of the infinite series is that we have a increasing sequence of those finite alternating sums with an even number of terms, starting with the empty sum (which is , the empty set):
etc., and the infinite series is interpreted as the countable union of this increasing sequence. Note that we have to be careful about the order of the appearance of and , but alternatively, letting be the addition in the Boolean ring (symmetric difference), we could write also the series as in the ring, where we do not need to be fussy about order.
Most of this is a routine calculation, which for the most part boils down to the following observation:
If are elements of , with , then . (With a similar statement for .)
The proof is left to the reader, but in brief, the injectivity of implies that preserves binary intersections and relative complements.
From here, if we write
then it is easily verified by induction that, referring to equation (1),
Now we set up a comparison with one of the standard proofs involving a back-and-forth argument?, say the one given in Wikipedia that is attributed to Julius König. The minimal fixed point is a union of finitary approximations
etc. Elements in are those which have no inverse images under . Elements in are elements in to which can be applied at most once before we hit an element of with no inverse image under . Elements in the union are those which survive at most finitely many applications of before hitting an element of with no inverse image under . In the terminology of the Wikipedia article, such elements in are called “-stoppers”, and these are exactly the elements for which (where recall is the bijection under construction) is defined to be in the Wikipedia article. For elements not in this fixed point (the non--stoppers), we define to be , the same prescription that is used in the Wikipedia article.
Other prescriptions are possible. For example, one could dually construct a maximal fixed point of the operator , using Lemma 2 to note that and the right adjoint preserve limits of inverse -chains, so that the maximal fixed point or terminal algebra of the endofunctor could be constructed as an intersection . This could also be written as a series
except this time the series is interpreted as an intersection of a decreasing sequence whose partial sums have an odd number of terms:
etc. The difference between this and the minimal fixed point is the set , consisting of elements of that belong to a doubly infinite sequence or a cyclic sequence (in the terminology of the Wikipedia article). As remarked in that article, for such we have an option to define as or ; in this article our approach has been to define for all in the constructed fixed point (which includes points in doubly infinite sequences or cyclic sequences if is the maximal fixed point), whereas the Wikipedia article chooses (which would be our choice too if is the minimal fixed point). But it makes no difference.
The remaining (belonging to the complement of the maximal fixed point) are mapped to , according to the prescription laid out in either article.
Counterexample 4 below shows that the CSB theorem fails in Brouwer's intuitionistic mathematics even for (since every function between the sets and must be continuous by Brouwer's continuity principle!). See also the discussion in Mac Lane-Moerdijk, VI.9, on toposes that realize Brouwer’s theorem.
As mentioned above, the Cantor-Schroeder-Bernstein theorem fails in the arrow category , whose objects are functions between sets and whose morphisms are commutative squares. For example, let be the object that takes to , where is the greatest integer less than or equal to ; let be the object that takes to , where is the least integer greater than or equal to . Pretty clearly and are non-isomorphic, because has cardinality whereas all fibers of have cardinality . But, just by drawing pictures of these objects, it is easy to construct monomophisms and (e.g., define and for all , and define for , , and for all ).
Nor can one have internal existence of an isomorphism between and in this last example, since internal existence implies external existence as soon as the terminal object is (externally) projective.
The CSB property holds in some other categories of interest (but arguably fails in many more). Some examples follow:
The CSB property holds in the category of vector spaces and in the category of algebraically closed fields. See also this MO post by John Goodrick, where model-theoretic criteria come into play, sometimes under strengthenings of the notion of monomorphism (e.g., elementary embedding, split monomorphism) Some slides by Goodrick here go into more detail, giving connections between CSB and stable theories in the sense of Shelah.
On the other hand, the CSB property obviously fails in Top, since we have embeddings , yet . It fails in Grp (e.g., the free group on countably many generators embeds in the free group on two generators).
More examples and discussion can be found at this Secret Blogging Seminar post.
The CSB theorem was first stated by Georg Cantor, but his proof relied on the well-ordering theorem. The modern (choice-free) theorem was proved (independently) by Felix Bernstein? and Ernst Schröder?. It has been variously named after two or three of these in almost every possible combination, although Cantor (when mentioned at all) seems always to be mentioned first.