Contents

# Contents

## Definition

An equation is a proposition of equality.

For

$x : X \vdash \phi(x) : Z$

and

$y : Y \vdash \psi(y) : Z$

two terms of some type $Z$ dependent on variables $x$ of type $X$ and $y$ of type $Y$, respectively, the equation asserting that these two formulas are equal is as a proposition the bracket type

$x : X, y : Y \vdash [\phi(x) = \psi(y)] : Type$

and as a not-neccessarily (-1)-truncated type just the identity type

$x : X, y : Y \vdash (\phi(x) = \psi(y)) : Type$

itself.

The space of solutions of this equation is the dependent sum over all pairs of terms for which equality holds

$\vdash \sum_{{x : X} \atop {y : Y}} (\phi(x) = \psi(y)) : Type \,.$

Hence a particular solution $sol$ is a term of this type

$\vdash sol : \sum_{{x : X} \atop {y : Y}} (\phi(x) = \psi(y)) \,,$

which means that it is a triple consisting of an $x \in X$, a $y \in Y$ and a witness $eq : (\phi(x) = \psi(y))$ that these indeed solve the equation.

In categorical semantics this means that the space of solutions to an equation between expression $\phi(x) : Z$ and $\psi(y) : Z$ of type $Z$ depending on variables of type $X$ and $Y$, respectively is the pullback

$\array{ \sum_{{x : X} \atop {y : Y}} (\phi(x) = \psi(y)) &\to& Y \\ \downarrow && \downarrow^{\mathrlap{\psi}} \\ X &\stackrel{\phi}{\to}& Z } \,,$

the fiber product of $\phi$ with $\psi$. In the context of homotopy type theory this is the homotopy pullback/homotopy fiber product.

See at homotopy pullback – concrete constructions – In homotopy type theory for more on this.

## Examples

Last revised on September 11, 2019 at 06:32:37. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.