symmetric monoidal (∞,1)-category of spectra
monoid theory in algebra:
The free commutative monoid $\mathbb{N}[S]$ on a set $S$ is the commutative monoid whose elements are formal $\mathbb{N}$-linear combinations of elements of $S$.
Let
be the forgetful functor from the category CMon of commutative monoids, to the category Set of sets. This has a left adjoint free construction:
This is the free commutative monoid functor. For $S \in$ Set, the free commutative monoid $\mathbb{N}[S] \in$ CMon is the free object on $S$ with respect to this free-forgetful adjunction.
Of course, this notion is meant to be invariant under isomorphism: it doesn’t depend on the left adjoint chosen. Thus, if a functor of the form $\hom_{Set}(S, U-): CMon \to Set$ is representable by a commutative monoid $M$, then we may say $M$ is a free commutative monoid on $S$. A specific choice of isomorphism
corresponds, via the Yoneda lemma, to a function $S \to U M$ which exhibits $S$, or rather its image under this function, as a specific basis of $M$. If $M$ is so equipped with such a universal arrow $S \to U M$, then it is harmless to call $M$ “the” free commutative monoid on $S$.
Explicit descriptions of free commutative monoid are discussed below.
A formal linear combination of elements of a set $S$ is a function
such that only finitely many of the values $a_s \in \mathbb{N}$ are non-zero.
Identifying an element $s \in S$ with the function $S \to \mathbb{N}$ which sends $s$ to $1 \in \mathbb{N}$ and all other elements to 0, this is written as
In this expression one calls $a_s \in \mathbb{N}$ the coefficient of $s$ in the formal linear combination.
Definition of formal linear combinations makes sense with coefficients in any commutative monoid $M$, not necessarily the natural numbers.
For $S \in$ Set, the monoid of formal linear combinations $\mathbb{N}[S]$ is the monoid whose underlying set is that of formal linear combinations, def. , and whose monoid operation is the pointwise addition in $\mathbb{N}$:
The free commutative monoid on $S \in Set$ is, up to isomorphism, the monoid of formal linear combinations, def. , on $S$.
For $S$ a set, the free commutative monoid $\mathbb{N}[S]$ is the biproduct in CMon of ${|S|}$-copies of $\mathbb{N}$ with itself:
For $R$ a rig and $S$ a set, the tensor product of commutative monoids $\mathbb{N}[S] \otimes R$ is the free module over $R$ on the basis $S$.
For $R$ a rig, the tensor product of commutative monoids $\mathbb{N}[\mathbb{N}]\otimes R$ is the commutative monoid underlying the rig of polynomials over $R$.
Last revised on May 21, 2021 at 22:29:48. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.