monoid theory in algebra:
A commutative monoid is a monoid where the multiplication satisfies the commutative law:
Alternatively, just as a monoid can be seen as a category with one object, a commutative monoid can be seen as a bicategory with one object and one morphism (or equivalently, a monoidal category with one object).
Commutative monoids with homomorphisms between them form a category of commutative monoids.
Every commutative monoid has the canonical structure of a module over the commutative rig $\mathbb{N}$. That is, CMon = $\mathbb{N}$-Mod.
More generally, the concept makes sense internal to any symmetric monoidal category (or even any braided monoidal category). See at commutative monoid in a symmetric monoidal category for details.
A commutative monoid is a 0-truncated commutative H-monoid?. It is also a 0-truncated $E_2$-space.
An abelian group is a commutative monoid that is also a group.
The natural numbers (together with 0) form a commutative monoid under addition.
Every bounded semilattice is an idempotent commutative monoid, and every idempotent commutative monoid yields a semilattice, (see that entry).
Examples of commutative monoids in a symmetric monoidal category:
A commutative monoid in the symmetric monoidal category of vector spaces is a commutative algebra;
A commutative monoid in the symmetric monoidal category of chain complexes of vector spaces is a differential graded-commutative algebra;
A commutative monoid in the symmetric monoidal category of chain complexes of super vector spaces is a differential graded-commutative superalgebra.
If a commutative monoid is finitely generated it is finitely presented.
Finitely generated commutative monoids have decidable word problems, the isomorphism problem for them is decidable, and indeed the first-order theory of finitely generated commutative monoids is decidable (see KharlampovichSapir).
If a finitely generated commutative monoid is cancellative ($a + b = a' + b \Rightarrow a = a'$) then it embeds in a finitely generated abelian group.
If a finitely generated commutative monoid is cancellative and torsion-free ($a + a + \cdots + a = 0 \Rightarrow a = 0$) then it embeds in a finitely generated free abelian group (or more concretely, $\mathbb{Z}^n$). Conversely any submonoid of $\mathbb{Z}^n$ is cancellative and torsion-free (but not necessarily finitely generated). A commutative monoid is called an affine monoid if it is isomorphic to a finitely generated submonoid of $\mathbb{Z}^n$, and there is an extensive theory of these, connected to toric varieties (see BrunsGubeladze).
If a finitely generated commutative monoid is cancellative and nonnegative ($a + b = 0 \Rightarrow a,b = 0$), it embeds in a finitely generated free commutative monoid, or more concretely, $\mathbb{N}^n$ (Thm. 3.11, RosalesGarcía-Sánchez). Conversely, any finitely generated submonoid of $\mathbb{N}^n$ is cancellative and nonnegative (but not necessarily finitely generated).
The word problem for commutative monoids is discussed here:
For affine monoids and other finitely generated commutative monoids see:
Winfried Bruns and Joseph Gubeladze, Polytopes, Rings, and K-theory, Springer, Berlin, 2009. (pdf of preliminary incomplete version)
José Carlos Rosales and Pedro A. García-Sánchez, Finitely Generated Commutative Monoids, Nova Publishers, 1999.
For a treatment of free commutative monoids in homotopy type theory/univalent foundations:
Last revised on August 21, 2024 at 02:30:03. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.