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A quotient of the torus, taken in the sense of noncommutative geometry.
The noncommutative torus with parameter $\theta \in \mathrm{U}(1)$ away from roots of unity is the groupoid quotient of the circle group $\mathrm{U}(1)$ by the action of the discrete group $\mathbf{Z}$ of integers, where the element $1 \in \mathbf{Z}$ acts by multiplication by $\theta$.
Here we can take $\theta = \exp(2\pi i \hbar)$, for $\hbar$ an irrational number (which, if we think of the non-commutative algebra here as arising from quantization, may be thought of as Planck's constant).
The following Lie groupoid is Morita equivalent to the above Lie groupoid:
take the groupoid quotient of $\mathrm{U}(1)^2$ (i.e., a torus) by the action of the Lie group $\mathbf{R}$ of real numbers such that
Taking the groupoid algebra of the Lie groupoid constructed above, we obtain a noncommutative space in the sense of Connes noncommutative geometry.
For instance, in the realm of C*-algebras we get the C*-algebra generated by two unitary operators $U$ and $V$ subject to the relation
The following classification is due to Rieffel 81.
If $\theta$ is a root of unity, then the resulting Lie groupoid is Morita equivalent to the smooth manifold $\mathrm{U}(1)$, i.e., the circle.
Otherwise, the noncommutative torus with parameter $\theta$ is not Morita equivalent to the circle (or any smooth manifold). Furthermore, two noncommutative tori with paremeters $\theta_1$ and $\theta_2$ are Morita equivalent if and only if $\theta_1$ and $\theta_2$ are in the same orbit with respect to the action of $\mathrm{GL}(2,\mathbf{Z})$ on $\mathrm{U}(1)$ defined as follows:
Original articles:
Marc A. Rieffel, $C^\ast$-algebras associated with irrational rotations, Pacific Journal of Mathematics 93:2 (1981), 415–429 (pdf, doi:10.2140/pjm.1981.93.415, euclid:pjm/1102736269)
Marc Rieffel, Albert Schwarz, Morita equivalence of multidimensional noncommutative tori, Int. J. Math. 10 (1999) 289-299 (arXiv:math/9803057)
George A. Elliott and Hanfeng Li, Morita equivalence of smooth noncommutative tori, Acta Math. Volume 199, Number 1 (2007), 1-27 (euclid:acta/1485891908)
Review:
Alain Connes, p. 55, p. 217, p. 356 of: Noncommutative Geometry, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994 (ISBN:9780080571751, pdf)
Wikipedia, Noncommutative torus
Non-commutative tori understood as strict deformation quantizations:
Last revised on December 4, 2023 at 20:00:46. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.