synthetic differential geometry
Introductions
from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds
geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry
Differentials
Tangency
The magic algebraic facts
Theorems
Axiomatics
(shape modality $\dashv$ flat modality $\dashv$ sharp modality)
$(\esh \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )$
dR-shape modality$\dashv$ dR-flat modality
$\esh_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}$
(reduction modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal shape modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal flat modality)
$(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)$
fermionic modality$\dashv$ bosonic modality $\dashv$ rheonomy modality
$(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)$
Models
Models for Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
smooth algebra ($C^\infty$-ring)
differential equations, variational calculus
Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory
Cartan geometry (super, higher)
higher geometry / derived geometry
Ingredients
Concepts
geometric little (∞,1)-toposes
geometric big (∞,1)-toposes
Constructions
Examples
derived smooth geometry
Theorems
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline studying geometry of spaces using differential and integral calculus. Classical differential geometry studied submanifolds (curves, surfaces…) in Euclidean spaces. The traditional objects of differential geometry are finite and infinite-dimensional differentiable manifolds modelled locally on topological vector spaces. Techniques of differential calculus can be further stretched to generalized smooth spaces. One often distinguished analysis on manifolds from differential geometry: analysis on manifolds focuses on functions from a manifold to the ground field and their properties, together with applications like PDEs on manifolds. Differential geometry on the other hand studies objects embedded into the manifold like submanifolds, their relations and additional structures on manifolds like bundles, connections etc. while the topological aspects are studied in a younger branch (from 1950s on) which is called differential topology.
See also generalized smooth space.
Finite-dimensional differential geometry is the geometry modeled on Cartesian spaces and smooth functions between them.
Formally, it is the geometry modeled on the pre-geometry $\mathcal{G} =$CartSp.
This includes a sequence of concepts of generalized smooth spaces:
A smooth manifold (see there for details) is a locally $CartSp$-representable object in the sheaf topos $Sh(CartSp)$.
A diffeological space (see there) is a concrete sheaf in the cohesive topos $Sh(CartSp)$.
a Lie groupoid is a locally representable object in the (2,1)-sheaf (2,1)-topos $Sh_{(2,1)}(CartSp)$;
an ∞-Lie groupoid is an object in the (∞,1)-sheaf (∞,1)-topos $Sh_{(\infty,1)}(CartSp)$.
Similarly, standard models of synthetic differential geometry in higher geometry are modeled on the pre-geometry $\mathcal{G} =$ThCartSp. To wit, the cohesive topos $Sh(ThCartSp)$ is the smooth topos called the Cahiers topos:
an infinitesimal space is a certain object in $ThCartSp$;
an ∞-Lie algebroid is a certain object in the (∞,1)-category of (∞,1)-sheaves $Sh_{(\infty,1)}(ThCartSp)$.
some modern subfields of differential geometry include:
Finsler geometry?,
$\,$
local model | global geometry |
---|---|
Klein geometry | Cartan geometry |
Klein 2-geometry | Cartan 2-geometry |
higher Klein geometry | higher Cartan geometry |
$\,$
$\phantom{A}$(higher) geometry$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$site$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$sheaf topos$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$∞-sheaf ∞-topos$\phantom{A}$ |
---|---|---|---|
$\phantom{A}$discrete geometry$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$Point$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$Set$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$Discrete∞Grpd$\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}$differential geometry$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$CartSp$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$SmoothSet$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$Smooth∞Grpd$\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}$formal geometry$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$FormalCartSp$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$FormalSmoothSet$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$FormalSmooth∞Grpd$\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}$supergeometry$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$SuperFormalCartSp$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$SuperFormalSmoothSet$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$SuperFormalSmooth∞Grpd$\phantom{A}$ |
See also references at Riemannian geometry.
The study of differential geometry goes back to the special case of differential geometry of curves and surfaces:
the study of curves and surfaces embedded into Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^3$:
Carl Friedrich Gauss, General Investigations of Curved Surfaces (1827) (Gutenberg)
Manfredo P. Do Carmo, Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prentice-Hall (1976) [pdf]
Heinrich W. Guggenheimer, Differential Geometry, Dover (1977) [isbn:9780486634333, ark:/13960/t9t22sk9n]
Victor A. Toponogov, Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces — A Concise Guide, Springer (2006) [doi:10.1007/b137116]
Kristopher Tapp, Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Springer (2016) $[$doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39799-3, pdf$]$
Anton Petrunin, Sergio Zamora Barrera, What is differential geometry: curves and surfaces $[$arXiv:2012.11814$]$
Shoshichi Kobayashi, Katsumi Nomizu, Foundations of differential geometry, Volume 1 (1963), Volume 2 (1969) Interscience Publishers, reprint: Wiley Classics Library (1996) [ISBN:978-0-470-55558-3, Wikipedia entry]
Michael Spivak, Calculus on Manifolds (1971) [pdf]
Victor Guillemin, Shlomo Sternberg, Geometric asymptotics, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs 14, AMS (1977) [ams:surv-14]
Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, Cécile DeWitt-Morette, Analysis, manifolds and physics, North Holland (1982, 2001) [ISBN:9780444860170]
(with an eye towards mathematical physics)
Thomas A. Ivey and J.M. Landsberg, Cartan for Beginners: Differential Geometry via Moving Frames and Exterior Differential Systems, Graduate Studies in Mathematics 61, AMS (2003) [doi:10.1090/gsm/061, pdf, pdf]
Michael Spivak, A comprehensive introduction to differential geometry, 5 Volumes 2005
M M Postnikov, Lectures on geometry 2001 (6 vols.: 1 “Analytic geometry”, 2 “Linear algebra”, 3 “Diff. manifolds”; 4 “Diff. geometry” (covers extensively fibre bundles and connections); 5 “Lie groups”; 6 “Riemannian geometry”)
Sigurdur Helgason, Differential geometry, Lie groups and symmetric spaces, Graduate Studies in Mathematics 34 (2001) [ams:gsm-34]
Peter W. Michor, Topics in Differential Geometry, Graduate Studies in Mathematics 93 (2008) [pdf]
John Lee, Introduction to Smooth Manifolds, Springer (2012) [doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9982-5, book webpage, pdf]
Mikhail O. Katanaev, Geometrical methods in mathematical physics (in Russian) [arXiv1311.0733]
Loring Tu, Differential Geometry – Connections, Curvature, and Characteristic Classes, Springer (2017) [ISBN:978-3-319-55082-4]
Jean Gallier, Jocelyn Quaintance, Differential Geometry and Lie Groups – A computational perspective, Geometry and Computing 12, Springer (2020) [doi:10.1007/978-3-030-46040-2, webpage]
Jean Gallier, Jocelyn Quaintance, Differential Geometry and Lie Groups – A second course, Geometry and Computing 13, Springer (2020) [doi:10.1007/978-3-030-46047-1, webpage]
Andrzej Derdzinski, Differential Geometry, lecture notes [pdf, pdf]
With emphasis on G-structures:
With emphasis on natural bundles:
pdf]
With emphasis on Cartan geometry:
Lecture notes:
Brian Conrad, Handouts on Differential Geometry (web)
Liviu Nicolaescu, Lectures on the Geometry of Manifolds, 2018 (pdf)
Introductions with an eye towards applications in (mathematical)physics, specifically to gravity and gauge theory:
Theodore Frankel, The Geometry of Physics - An Introduction, Cambridge University Press (1997, 2004, 2012) [doi:10.1017/CBO9781139061377, website with errata and preface for 3rd edition)]
Chris Isham: Modern Differential Geometry for Physicists, Lecture Notes in Physics 61, World Scientific (1999, 2001) [doi:10.1142/0894, pdf, pdf]
A discussion in the context of Frölicher spaces and diffeological spaces:
See also
Sigmundur Gudmundsson, An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry (pdf)
Wikipedia, differential geometry
See at higher differential geometry.
For derived differential geometry see
Dominic Joyce, D-manifolds and d-orbifolds: a theory of derived differential geometry (web)
Last revised on July 11, 2024 at 10:45:43. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.