basic constructions:
strong axioms
further
In this article we introduce a structural set theory consisting of four basic primitives, sets, elements, functions, and relations, as well as function evaluation, and relation holding, and structural versions of 9 of the 10 axioms of ZFC presented in the nLab article of ZFC, making the set theory equivalent in strength to ZFC. We propose that structural ZFC is a suitable theory for practical foundations, as the primitives and axioms are in alignment with the usage of such objects in mathematical practice, rather than coming with its own additional baggage.
We work in a first-order logic with equality. In structural ZFC, there are four basic primitives:
sets $A$
for every set $A$, elements $a \in A$ (the membership $\in$ here is a typing judgment, rather than a relation)
for every set $A$ and $B$, functions $f:A \to B$ with domain $A$ and codomain $B$ (the function notation $f:A \to B$ here is a judgment, rather than a relation)
for every set $A$ and $B$, relations $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ with domain $A$ and codomain $B$ (the relation notation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ here is a judgment, rather than a relation)
In addition,
The axioms of structural ZFC are as follows:
Axiom 0A (Axiom of equality preservation): For all sets $A$ and $B$, functions $f:A \to B$, and elements $a \in A$ and $b \in A$, if $a = b$, then $f(a) = f(b)$.
Axiom 0B (Axiom of unique choice): For all functions $f:A \to B$, there is a unique relation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ such that for all $a \in A$ and $b \in B$, $\varphi(a, b)$ iff $b = f(a)$, and for all relations $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ such that for all $a \in A$, there is a unique $b \in B$ such that $\varphi(a, b)$ holds of $a$ and $b$, there is a function $f:A \to B$ such that $f(a) = b$.
A function $f:A \to B$ is an injection if for all elements $a \in A$ and $b \in A$, $a = b$ if and only if $f(a) = f(b)$. Injections are written as $f:A \hookrightarrow B$.
Axiom 1 (Axiom of strong extensionality): Given sets $A$ and $B$ and an injection $i:A \hookrightarrow B$, the following statements are logically equivalent to each other:
One uses the axiom of strong extensionality as the definition of a bijection between sets.
Axiom 2 (Axiom of empty set): There exists a set $\emptyset$ such that for every other set $A$, there is a unique relation $u_A^\emptyset:\emptyset \looparrowright A$.
Axiom 3 (Axiom of Cartesian products): For every set $A$ and $B$, there exists a set $A \times B$ with a function $\pi_A:A \times B \to A$ and a function $\pi_B:A \times B \to B$ such that for every element $a \in A$ and $b \in B$ there is a unique element $(a, b) \in A \times B$, such that $\pi_A((a, b)) = a$ and $\pi_B((a, b)) = b$.
Given a set $I$, an $I$-indexed family of subsets is a relation $M:I \looparrowright A$ to a set $A$ called the union of $M$.
Axiom 4 (Axiom of indexed subsets): For every set $I$ and $I$-indexed family of subsets $M:I \looparrowright A$ with union $A$, and for every element $i \in I$, there exists a set $M_i$ and an injection $m:M_i \hookrightarrow A$, such that for every element $a \in M_i$, $M(i, m(a))$ holds for $i$ and $m(a)$, and for every other set $B$ with injection $f:B \hookrightarrow A$ such that for every element $b \in B$, $M(i, f(b))$ holds for $i$ and $f(b)$, there is a unique function $u_B^{M_i}:B \to M_i$ such that for every element $b \in B$, $f(b) = m(u_B^{M_i}(b))$.
Axiom 5 (Axiom schema of separation): For any set $B$ and any formula $\phi(x)$ with free variable $x \in B$, there exists a set $\{B \vert \phi\}$ with an injection $m:\{B \vert \phi\} \hookrightarrow B$ such that for every element $x \in B$, $\phi(x)$ holds if and only if there exists an element $y \in \{B \vert \phi\}$ such that $m(y) = x$.
Axiom 6 (Axiom schema of collection): For any set $A$ and formula $\phi(x, X)$ with free variables $x \in A$ and $X$, there exists a set $B$, function $p:B \to A$, and a $B$-indexed family of sets $M:B \looparrowright C$ with union $C$, such that for every $b \in B$, $\phi(p(b), M_b)$, and for every $a \in A$, if there exists a set $X$ with $\phi(a, X)$, then $a \in \mathrm{im}(p)$.
Axiom 7 (Axiom of power sets): For any set $A$, there exists a set $\mathcal{P}(A)$ and a relation $(-)\in_A(-):A\looparrowright \mathcal{P}(A)$ such that for any set $B$ with injection $i:B \hookrightarrow A$, there exists a unique $b \in \mathcal{P}(A)$ such that for any $x \in A$, $x \in_A b$ holds of $x$ and $b$ if and only if there exists an element $y \in B$ such that $i(y) = x$.
Axiom 8 (Axiom of natural numbers): There exists a set $\mathbb{N}$ with an element $0 \in \mathbb{N}$ and a function $s:\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$, such that for all sets $A$ with an element $0_A:A$ and function $s_A:A \to A$, there is a unique function $u_A^\mathbb{N}:\mathbb{N} \to A$ such that $u_A^\mathbb{N}(0) = 0_A$ and for all elements $n \in \mathbb{N}$, $u_A^\mathbb{N}(s(n)) = s_A(u_A^\mathbb{N}(n))$.
Axiom 9 (Axiom of choice): If $f:A \to B$ is a function such that for every element $x \in B$ there exists an element $y \in A$ such that $f(y) = x$, then there is a function $g:B \to A$ such that for all elements $x \in B$, $f(g(x)) = x$.
The structural version of the axiom of foundation, the axiom of well-founded materialization, states that every set can be embedded in some well-founded extensional graph. This axiom follows from the axiom of choice, and well-founded extensional graphs are not a fundamental concept in structural set theory, so it is not listed here as a separate axiom.
One could choose to make either the relations or the functions a derived object of the other, leading to categorical ZFC and allegorical ZFC respectively.
Categorical ZFC follows ETCS with elements in taking functions to be fundamental and relations as defined.
We work in a first-order logic with equality. In structural ZFC, there are three basic primitives:
sets $A$
for every set $A$, elements $a \in A$ (the membership $\in$ here is a typing judgment, rather than a relation)
for every set $A$ and $B$, functions $f:A \to B$ with domain $A$ and codomain $B$ (the function notation $f:A \to B$ here is a judgment, rather than a relation)
In addition, for every function $f:A \to B$ and element $a \in A$, one could form the element $f(a) \in B$; this operation is called function evaluation. A relation between sets $A$ and $B$ is a set $R$ with an injection $(s, t):R \hookrightarrow A \times B$.
An alternate formulation of categorical ZFC three sorts, one for sets, elements, and functions, making structural ZFC into a three-sorted set theory. The membership $a \in A$ becomes a relation between the sort of elements and the sort of sets, while the functional domain and codomain notation $f:A \to B$ also becomes a ternary relation between the sort of functions, and two copies of the sort of sets. There is a quinary relation $\mathrm{eval}(A, B, f, a, b)$ between all three sorts, which says that given sets $A$ and $B$, the function $f$ can be evaluated at element $a$ and the result of the evaluation is the element $b$, in the context of $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$, $a \in A$, and $b \in B$.
Allegorical ZFC follows SEAR in taking relations to be fundamental and functions as defined.
We work in a first-order logic with equality. In structural ZFC, there are three basic primitives:
sets $A$
for every set $A$, elements $a \in A$ (the membership $\in$ here is a typing judgment, rather than a relation)
for every set $A$ and $B$, relations $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ with domain $A$ and codomain $B$ (the relation notation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ here is a judgment, rather than a relation)
In addition, for every relation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ and element $a \in A$, one could form the judgment that $\varphi(a, b)$ holds. A function is a relation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ such that for all $a \in A$, there is a unique element $b \in B$ such that $\varphi(a, b)$ holds, and $b$ is said to be the evaluation of $a$ at $\varphi$.
An alternate formulation of allegorical ZFC uses three sorts, one for sets, elements, and relations, making SEAR into a three-sorted set theory. The membership $a \in A$ becomes a relation between the sort of elements and the sort of sets, while the relational domain and codomain notation $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$ also becomes a ternary relation between the sort of relations, and two copies of the sort of sets. There is a quinary relation $\mathrm{holds}(A, B, \varphi, a, b)$ between all three sorts, which says that given sets $A$ and $B$, the relation $\varphi$ holds for element $a$ and $b$ in the context of $\varphi:A \looparrowright B$, $a \in A$, and $b \in B$.
The axiom of well-founded materialization, the structural axiom of extensionality (the strong terminal generator condition of well-pointedness), and the structural axiom schemata of separation and collection could be found in:
The rest of the axioms are standard axioms from categorical set theory (or the type theoretic equivalent).
Last revised on September 13, 2023 at 16:05:24. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.