Zoran Skoda blockchain

Wiki and basics

Some basic popularization videos include Shai Rubin, What is blockchain; P. Borah, Tourist guide to future; V. Buterin, Ethereum in 25 minutes; CuriousInventor, How bitcoin works in 5 minutes; (elementary) Blockchain expert explains one concept in 5 levels of difficulty youtube; Steve Lund, The convergence of blockchain, machine learning, and the cloud, youtube

Berkeley course Blockchain fundamentals (videos) fall 2018 lec1, lec2, lec3, lec4, lec5, lec6, lec7, lec8, lec9, lec10, lec11, lec12; fall17 lec10, spring18 lec10, spring18 lec11

Berkeley course Blockchain for developers (Spring 2018) yt list

A foundational/mathematical introductory book from the point of view of (building) a distributed computing system is

  • Roger Wattenhofer, The science of the blockchain, 115 pp. Inverted Forest Publishing 2016

A survey of basic mathematical estimates of mining incentives is

  • Cyril Grunspan, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, The mathematics of Bitcoin, Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society 115 (2020) 31-37 arxiv/2003.00001

A comprehensive guide for architects of blockchain applications with an attempt at certain level of abstraction of central concepts is

  • Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Architecture for blockchain applications, Springer 2019
  • Xiwei Xu, Cesare Pautasso, Liming Zhu, Qinghua Lu, Ingo Weber, A pattern collection for blockchain-based applications, Proc. of the 23rd European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP), Kloster Irsee, Germany, July 2018, 3:1–3:20 pdf

The largest consortia in the industry include R3, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, Hyperledger.

Technically accurate comprehensive introduction to Ethereum blockchain is

  • Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood, Mastering Ethereum: building smart contracts and DApps, O’Reilly Media, 2018. The book is also on github together with sourcecode.

Byzantine protocols

  • A. Miller, Yu Xia, et al., The honey badger of BFT protocols, Cryptology e-print archive 2016/99, pdf 2016.

  • M. Castro, B. Liskov, et al., Practical byzantine fault tolerance, Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (1999) 173–186 pdf

  • L. Lamport, R. Shostak, M. Pease, The byzantine generals problem, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 4/3 (1982), p. 382–401.

  • C. Dwork, N. Lynch, L. Stockmeier, Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 35:2 (1988) 288-323 pdf

  • David Schwartz, Noah Youngs, Arthur Britto, The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm, Ripple Labs Inc. 2014 pdf


  • Leemon Baird, The Swirlds hashgraph consensus algorithm: fair, fast, byzantine fault tolerance, pdf (May 2016); Hashgraph consensus: detailed examples pdf; Overview of Swirlds Hashgraph: An Introduction To The Hashgraph (SDK Available Now) online

  • Hedera Hashgraph whitepaper pdf; intro to whitepaper web; company homepage

Security of blockchain

  • Ittay Eyal, Emin Gün Sirer, Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable, in: Financial Cryptography and Data Security 436–454, Springer 2014 pdf

  • A. Sapirshtein, Y. Sompolinsky, A. Zohar, Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin, arxiv/1507.06183

  • V. Buterin, Blockchain and Ethereum security on the higher level, youtube 1:21h

  • Zhu et al. Research on the security of blockchain data: A survey, arxiv/1812.02009

  • C. Natoli, V. Gramoli, The balance attack against proof-of-work blockchains: the R3 testbed as an example, arxiv/1612.09426

  • ARPA whitepaper (secure computation solution for blockchain networks) arxiv/1812.05820

  • post-quantum cryptography nist.gov (in general)

Postquantum cryptography and blockchain

  • K. Chalkias et al. Blockchained post-quantum signatures (and related BPQS library, Cryptology ePrint Archive 2018/65 [pdf(https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/658.pdf) github)]
  • I. Stewart, D. Ilie, A. Zamyatin, S. Werner, M. F. Torshizi, W. J. Knottenbelt, Committing to quantum resistance: a slow defence for Bitcoin against a fast quantum computing attack, Royal Society Open Science, Special Collection on Blockchain Technology, doi
  • K.K.A. Thissen, Klepto for post-quantum signatures, B.S. thesis, Eindhoven University 2016 pdf and related Tanja Lang, Lattice klepto pdf

Ethereum and similar

  • Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform, pdf
  • Gavin Wood, Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger, Ethereum, Tech. Rep. 2017. pdf
  • parity blockchain infrastructure for the decentralised web
  • Vlad Zamfir, Nate Rush, Aditya Asgaonkar, Georgios Piliouras, Introducing the “Minimal CBC Casper” family of consensus protocols, pdf

Hyperledger Fabric grew out as a permissioned version of Ethereum.

Privacy and blockchain

  • J. Wahab, G. Danezis, Privacy in blockchain systems arxiv/1809.10642

  • Bank of England 2018 Fintech proof of concept paper Chain pdf on exploring how distributed ledgers can be configured to enable privacy amongst participants whilst keeping data shared across a network

  • A. Kosba et al. Hawk: the blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts, 2016 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy 839–858 doi

  • K. Singh et al. Towards anonymous, unlinkable, and confidential transactions in blockchain (Cybermatics 2018)

  • A. Unterweger et al. Lessons learned from implementing a privacy-preserving smart contract in Ethereum”. 2018 9th IFIP Intern. Conf. on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS) Feb. 2018, pp. 1–5 doi

  • M. Bowman et al. (Hyperledger Project) Private Data Objects: an Overview arxiv/1807.05686

  • Michèle Finck, Blockchains and data protection in the European Union, European Data Protection Law Review 4:1 (2018) 17–35 pdf

  • Guy Zyskind et al. Enigma: decentralized computation platform with guaranteed privacy, pdf enigma.co

gdpr and enigma

  • C Roulin et al. On the activity privacy of blockchain for IoT arxiv/1812.08970

  • Christopher D. Clack, Nicolas T. Courtois, Distributed ledger privacy: ring signatures, Möbius and CryptoNote arxiv/1902.02609

Traditional research on encrypted compilation and program execution (as well as multithreading of decrypted pieces) may be relevant. See e.g.

  • C, Fletcher et al. Compilation techniques for efficient encrypted computation, 2012 pdf

  • I. Gerhardt, T. Hanke, Homomorphic payment addresses and the pay-to-contractprotocol arxiv/1212.3257

  • B. Curran, What are bulletproofs? Guide to confidential cryptocurrency transactions blockonomi

(see also under Privacy and blockchain above and blockchain regulation)

  • Financial markets law committee working group, Distributed ledger technology and governing law: issues of legal uncertainty www.fmlc.org March 2018 pdf
  • D. A. Zetzsche et al. The distributed liability of distributed ledgers: legal risks of blockchain, University of South Wales Law Research Studies pdf (lots of refs. in footnotes!)
  • Rosario Girasa, Regulation of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies – national and international perspectives, Palgrave Studies in Financial Services Technology 2018
  • UK Financial conduct authority (FCA), Guidance on cryptoassets, cp19-03.pdf January 2019
  • Financial Stability Board, Crypto-assets regulators directory, April 2019 pdf
  • Tax3 study, Cyptocurrencies and blockchain pdf
  • T. I. Kiviat, Beyond bitcoin: issues in regulating blockchain transactions, 65 Duke Law Journal 569 (2015) online
  • G. Geis, Blockchain and corporate law, Univ. Virginia yt

Some standardization issues are considered in

  • Distributed ledgers, smart contracts, business standards and ISO 20022, Swift 2016 pdf

Smart contracts

  • Joseph Poon, Vitalik Buterin, Plasma: scalable autonomous smart contracts pdf draft whitepaper
  • Peter Borah, Contract oriented programming slides, youtube
  • Mustafa Al-Bassam et al. Chainspace: A sharded smart contracts platform arXiv:1708.03778
  • A. Kolluri et al. Exploiting the laws of order in smart contracts, arxiv/1810.11605
  • D. Harz, W. Knottenbelt, Towards safer smart contracts: A survey of languages and verification methods arxiv/1809.09805
  • accordproject tools for building smart legal contracts
  • clause
  • IBM oracles tutorial
  • lightning.network
  • Joseph Poon, Tadge Dryja, Lightning Network, pdf Mar 2015.
  • A van Wirdum Understanding the lightning network 1 2

Interchains and generic chains

Various projects

  • EOS, EOS.IO technical white paper, github.md

  • Krzysztof Okupski, Bitcoin developer reference, Working Paper, Last changes 30th July 2016 pdf

  • ibm-research 5 in 5, 2018

  • Redbelly bc

  • Bridging the gap between public and consortium blockchains

  • Petar Maymounkov, PDavid Mazieres, Kademlia: A peer-to-peer information system based on the xor metric, in Peer-to-Peer Systems 53-65, Springer 2002

  • MVC-CAP blockchain revolution in banking, whitepaper pdf

  • Provenance, Blockchain: the solution for transparency in product supply chains whitepaper 2015

  • Tolar hashnet whitepaper pdf

  • Microsoft Azure CoCo project of common runtime for plurality of ledgers: whitepaper 2017 at github pdf, announcement; presentation on Medium

  • Tezos (uses OCaml for smart contracts) home, whitepaper pdf, position paper pdf, stackexhange, github, developer docs

  • Victor Allombert, Mathias Bourgoin, Julien Tesson, Introduction to the Tezos blockchain, arxiv/1909.08458

Economics of blockchain and surveys of blockchain applications

  • Kroll et al. The economics of Bitcoin mining, or Bitcoin in the presence of adversaries, 2013 pdf

  • Geneva report 2018

  • S. Shah et al. Unlocking economic advantages of blockchain, a guide for asset managers, 2018 report for Oliver Wyman and J P Morgan pdf news coverage

  • Distributed ledger technology in payments, clearing, and settlement (FED/DLT report 2016) pdf

  • uinta 3rd wave of financial intermediation

  • M. Rauchs et al. (Cambridge centre for alternative finance) Distributed ledger technology systems, a conceptual framework, 103 pp. Aug 2018 pdf

  • Emmanuelle Ganne, Can blockchain revolutionize international trade?, WTO report 2018, 163 pages, pdf

  • Bank of Canada, Project Jasper: Are distributed wholesale payment systems feasible yet? pdf 2017

  • Monetary Authority of Singapore, Project Ubin pdf

  • T. M. Griffoli et al. Casting light on central bank digital currencies, 39 pp., Int. Mon. Fond, Staff Discussion Notes 18/2008 link

  • Financial Stability Board, Crypto-asset markets: Potential channels for future financial stability implications, 21 pp. Oct 2018 link pdf

  • E. Mcguigan et al. Carrying the communication industry forward, Creating business value with blockchain, Accenture report 2018 pdf

  • Deloitte report, Blockchain at TelCo, 2016 pdf

  • Arnold Verbeek, Maria Lundqvist, Artificial intelligence, blockchain and the future of Europe, How disruptive technologies create opportunities for a green and digital economy, Report for European Investment Bank, June 2020 pdf

Blockchain is much about avoiding intermediaries. However, it is important to understand that the financial intermediation has its reasons, as known from classical theory

  • Douglas W. Diamond, Financial intermediation and delegated monitoring, Review of Economic Studies 51(3) 393–414 (1984)

This work is heavily referred to in the early blockchain finance study

Stablecoins to avoid volatility

  • George Calle, Diana Barrero Zalles, Will businesses ever use stablecoins?, R3 consortium study, March 26, 2019 pdf (mainly targetted to US regulation)

DAOs, ICO, STO phenomena

  • Introducing DAO stacks youtube

  • Polymath: what is STO

Distributed ledger databasing, Merkle nets, IPFS

  • BigchainDB2.0 whitepaper pdf; Ocean protocol (decentralized big data sharing and AI) tech-whitepaper pdf

  • IPFS

  • Tara Vancil, How Merkle trees enable the decentralized web! youtube

  • Serguei Popov, The tangle pdf, 2016.



  • corda open source distributed ledger written in cotlin, and developed by R3; documentation

  • Mike Hearn, Corda – a distributed ledger (technical whitepaper, 2016) pdf; Brown et al. Corda - an introduction, whitepaper 2016, pdf; Brown, Corda - an introduction platform whitepaper 2018 pdf


MIT Vault


Telegram (see FAQ and wikipedia) is developing Telegram Open Network(TON) centered around a new generation blockchain project. See the original

  • TON whitepaper, 23 page pdf, mirrors pdf pdf
  • Nikolai Durov‘s 132-page technical overview Telegram Open Network, Dec 2017 pdf, mirror pdf; Telegram Open Network Blockchain, Sep 2018, 121 pp. pdf; Telegram Open Network Virtual Machine, Sep. 2018, 148 pp. pdf; Fift: a brief introduction (about a new programming language on TON), May 23, 2019, 87 pp. pdf is at channel t.me/Tgram/170


  • Alan T. Sherman, Farid Javani, Haibin Zhang, Enis Golaszewski, On the origins and variations of blockchain technologies, arxiv/1810.06130

Some collections of articles and talks

  • R3 research reports downloads, mainly related to blockchain in finance
  • Cybermatics 2018 Proceedings
  • Ledger open journal by Pittsburgh University Press
  • Stanford blockchain conference talks, youtube (8 hours each) day1, day2, day3

Last revised on July 3, 2021 at 12:45:42. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.