Relative adjoints with respect to a functor $J$ are a generalization of adjoints, where $J$ in the relative case plays the role of the identity in the standard setting: adjoints are the same as $Id$-relative adjoints.
Fix a functor $J\colon B \to D$. Then, a functor
has a left $J$-relative adjoint (or $J$-left adjoint) if there is a functor
and a natural isomorphism
Dually, $L \colon C \to D$ has a $J$-right adjoint $R \colon B \to C$ if there’s a natural isomorphism
Just as with regular adjoints, in the unenriched setting, relative adjoints can be defined in a more conceptual way in terms of absolute liftings. We have
However, this is not true for enriched functors.
The most important difference with regular adjunctions is the asymmetry of the concept. First, for $L {\,\,}_J\!\dashv R$ it makes no sense to ask for $R \dashv_J L$ (domains and comodomains do not typecheck). And secondly, and more importantly:
(this is obvious from the definition in terms of liftings). Because of this, even if most of the properties of adjunctions have a generalization to the relative setting, they do that in a one-sided way.
Asymmetry manifests itself here:
with no naturally available counterpart for them in each case.
These 2-cells are directly provided by the definition in terms of liftings, as the universal 2-cells
Alternatively, and just as with regular adjunctions, their components can be obtained from the natural hom-isomorphism: in the unit case, evaluating at $Lb$ we get a bijection
and
is given by evaluating at $1_{Lb}$ the aforementioned bijection. A completely analogous procedure yields a description of the counit for $L \dashv_J R$.
Just as adjunctions give rise to monads and comonads, for relative adjoints
with relative units and counits as above, respectively.
There are also relative analogues of Eilenberg-Moore and Kleisli categories for these.
The concept of relative adjoint functors is a generalization of the concept of adjoint functors: if a functor $R\colon C\to D$ has a left adjoint in the usual sense, then it also has a $J$-left adjoint for $J=id_D$.
A functor $F: A \to B$ is fully faithful iff it is representably fully faithful iff $1_A = \mathop{Lift}_F F$, and this lifting is absolute. Thus, $F$ fully faithful can be expressed as
As remarked in the local definition of adjoint functor, given a functor
it may happen that $Hom_D(L(-),d)$ is representable only for some $d$, but not for all of them. In that case, taking
be the inclusion of the full subcategory determined by $Hom_D(L(-),d)$ representable, and defining $R \colon B \to C$ accordingly, we have
This can be specialized to situations such as a category having some but not all limits of some kind, partially defined Kan extensions, etc. See also free object.
Take $A$ a locally small category, and $F\colon A \to B$ a locally left-small functor (one for which $B(Fa,b)$ is always small). The $A$-nerve induced by $F$ is the functor
given by $N_F(b)(a) = B(Fa,b)$. It is a fundamental fact that $F = \mathop{Lift}_{N_F} y_A$ and this lifting is absolute; or, in relative adjoint notation, $F {\,\,}_{y_A}\!\dashv N_F$. The universal 2-cell $\iota\colon y_A \to N_F F$ is given by the action of $F$ on morphisms:
at $a' \colon A$ is
Note that when specialized to $F = 1_A$, this reduces to the Yoneda lemma: first $N_{1_A} \simeq y_A$, and then $1_A = \mathop{Lift}_{y_A} y_A$ absolute in hom-isomorphism terms reads:
One of the axioms of a Yoneda structure on a 2-category abstract over this situation, by requiring the existence of $F$-nerves with respect to yoneda embeddings such that the 1-cell $F$ is an absolute left lifting as above; see Weber or Street–Walters .
F. Ulmer, Properties of dense and relative adjoint functors, Journal of Algebra, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1968, Pages 77-95, pdf
Ross Street, Bob Walters - Yoneda structures on 2-categories, Journal of Algebra, Volume 50, Issue 2, February 1978, Pages 350-379, article at mendeley
Thorsten Altenkirch, James Chapman and Tarmo Uustalu, Monads need not be endofunctors In: Ong L. (eds) Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures. FoSSaCS 2010. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 6014. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, arXiv:1412.7148 [cs.PL] ,pdf
Mark Weber - Yoneda structures from 2-toposes, Appl Categor Struct (2007) 15: 259. doi:10.1007/s10485-007-9079-2, pdf
On the categorical semantics of dependent product types as relative right adjoints to context extension in comprehension categories:
Last revised on February 3, 2023 at 16:45:34. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.