algebraic quantum field theory (perturbative, on curved spacetimes, homotopical)
quantum mechanical system, quantum probability
interacting field quantization
In the context of nuclear physics, by the sign problem in lattice quantum chromodynamics is is meant the issue that
but
in many situations, notably at finite chemical potential, the would-be probability measure turns out not to be positive definite, and in fact typically turns out to be complex,
which means that various numerical evaluation methods fail.
The sign problem is one of the reasons that lattice QCD fails to be a fully satisfactory construction of non-perturbative QCD even for practical purposes. For instance, much of the phase diagram of QCD remains unknown (e.g. de Forcrand 13 CQF21), since the sign problem prevents lattice QCD computations at “almost all points” in phase space (Hsu-Reeb 08).
Exposition:
Detailed review:
Original articles:
E. Y. Loh, Jr., J. E. Gubernatis, R. T. Scalettar, S. R. White, D. J. Scalapino, and R. L. Sugar, Sign problem in the numerical simulation of many-electron systems Phys. Rev. B 41 9301 (1990) (doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.41.9301)
Stephen D.H. Hsu, David Reeb, On the sign problem in dense QCD, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 25, pp. 53-67 (2010) (arXiv:0808.2987)
V. A. Goy, V. Bornyakov, D. Boyda, A. Molochkov, A. Nakamura, A. Nikolaev, V. Zakharov, Sign problem in finite density lattice QCD, Prog Theor Exp Phys (2017) 2017 (3): 031D01 (arXiv:1611.08093)
See also:
Wikipedia, Numerical sign problem
Xu Zhang, Gaopei Pan, Xiao Yan Xu, Zi Yang Meng, Sign Problem Finds Its Bounds (arXiv:2112.06139)
Proposal using quantum computation:
Last revised on August 30, 2022 at 06:00:06. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.