nLab Hubble's law




physics, mathematical physics, philosophy of physics

Surveys, textbooks and lecture notes

theory (physics), model (physics)

experiment, measurement, computable physics






Hubble’s law in relation to observation was arguably first discussed by

  • Georges Lemaître, Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extra-galactiques, Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles, A 47 (1927) 49-59 [adsabs:1927ASSB…47…49L]

but gets its name from

For more on the intricate history of the discovery of Hubble’s law see:

  • Harry Nussbaumer, Lydia Bieri, Discovering the Expanding Universe, Cambridge University Press (2009) [ISBN 978-0-521-51484-2]

  • Harry Nussbaumer, Lydia Bieri, Who discovered the expanding universe? [arXiv:1107.2281, InSpire:917993]


See also

Possible tension of model with observation

Possible tensions in the standard model of cosmology, regarding determination of the Hubble constant in the early and late universe, apparently observed by various groups, since the late 2010s:


  • L. Verde T. Treu, A.G. Riess, Tensions between the Early and the Late Universe (arXiv:1907.10625)


dication that the tension is not in the data but in systematic errors:

  • Freedman et al. The Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program. VIII. An Independent Determination of the Hubble Constant Based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (arxiv:1907.05922)

Indication that the tension is not in systematic errors:

  • Adam Riess, Gagandeep Anand, Wenlong Yuan, Stefano Casertano, Andrew Dolphin, Lucas Macri, Louise Breuval, Dan Scolnic, Marshall Perrin, Richard Anderson, Crowded No More: The Accuracy of the Hubble Constant Tested\with High Resolution Observations of Cepheids by JWST (arXiv:2307.15806)

Indication from new data from the James Webb Space Telescope that the old data does not have systematic errors and the tension is in the data:

Indication that the tension is not resolved by effects in inhomogeneous cosmology (such as the KBC void):

  • Hao-Yi Wu, Dragan Huterer, Sample variance in the local measurements of the Hubble constant, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 471, Issue 4, November 2017, Pages 4946–4955 (arXiv:1706.09723)

Indications that the Hubble constant is decreasing over time:

  • Xuan-Dong Jia, Jian-Ping Hu, Fa-Yin Wang, The evidence for a decreasing trend of Hubble constant, (arXiv:2212.00238)

On the status of the Hubble tension as of 25 January 2023

  • Maria Dainotti, Biagio De Simone, Giovanni Montani, Tiziano Schiavone, Gaetano Lambiase, The Hubble constant tension: current status and future perspectives through new cosmological probes (arXiv:2301.10572)

On the local value of the Hubble constant:

On the status of various alternatives to the standard model of cosmology to resolve the Hubble tension:

  • Ali Rida Khalife, Maryam Bahrami Zanjani, Silvia Galli, Sven Günther, Julien Lesgourgues, Karim Benabed, Review of Hubble tension solutions with new SH0ES and SPT-3G data (arXiv:2312.09814)

That the Hubble tension might result from systematics in the cosmic microwave background:

That there are no late-time solutions to the Hubble tension:

  • Lu Huang, Shao-Jiang Wang, Wang-Wei Yu, No-go guide for the Hubble tension: late-time or local-scale new physics [arXiv:2401.14170]

Last revised on February 24, 2024 at 00:45:32. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.