foundations

# Contents

## Definition

The lesser limited principle of omniscience ($LLPO$) is a principle of omniscience which states that, if the existential quantification of the conjunction of two decidable propositions is false, then one of their separate existential quantifications is false. That is,

$(\forall x, P(x) \vee \neg{P(x)}) \Rightarrow (\forall y, Q(y) \vee \neg{Q(y)}) \Rightarrow \neg(\exists x, P(x) \wedge \exists y, Q(y)) \Rightarrow \neg(\exists x, P(x)) \vee \neg(\exists y, Q(y)) ,$

or equivalently

$(\forall x, P(x) \vee \neg{P(x)}) \Rightarrow (\forall y, Q(y) \vee \neg{Q(y)}) \Rightarrow \neg(\exists x, P(x) \wedge \exists y, Q(y)) \Rightarrow (\forall x, \neg{P(x)}) \vee (\forall y, \neg{Q(y)}) .$

If one takes the domains of quantification to be subsingletons, one get de Morgan's law $\neg(p \wedge q) \Rightarrow \neg{p} \vee \neg{q}$ ($DM$), which is weaker than $EM$; conversely, $DM$ implies $LLPO$ (over any domain). Again, Bishop's $LLPO$ takes the domain to be $\mathbb{N}$, giving a principle weaker than $DM$ (and also weaker than $LPO_{\mathbb{N}}$).

Stated set-theoretically, the lesser limited principle of omniscience for $A$ ($LLPO_A$) states that, given functions $f, g\colon A \to \{0,1\}$, if $1 \notin \im f \cap \im g$, then $1 \notin \im f$ or $1 \notin \im g$. So Bishop's $LLPO$ is $LLPO_{\mathbb{N}}$.

## In the internal logic

In set theory, there are actually two different notions of logic: there is the external predicate logic used to define the set theory itself, and there is the internal predicate logic induced by the set operations on subsingletons and injections. In particular,

• An internal proposition is a set $P$ such that for all elements $x \in A$ and $y \in A$, $x = y$.

• The internal proposition true is a singleton $\top$.

• The internal proposition false is the empty set

• The internal conjunction of two internal propositions $P$ and $Q$ is the cartesian product $P \times Q$ of $P$ and $Q$.

• The internal disjunction of two internal propositions $P$ and $Q$ is the image of the unique function $!_{P \uplus Q}:P \uplus Q \to 1$ from the disjoint union of $P$ and $Q$ to the singleton $\top$.

$P \vee Q = \mathrm{im}(!_{P \uplus Q})$
• The internal implication of two internal propositions $P$ and $Q$ is the function set $P \to Q$ between $P$ and $Q$.

• The internal negation of an internal proposition $P$ is the function set from $P$ to the empty set

$\neg P = P \to \emptyset$
• An internal proposition $P$ is a decidable proposition if it comes with a function $\chi_P:P \to 2$ from $P$ to the boolean domain $2$.

• An internal predicate on a set $A$ is a set $P$ with injection $i:P \hookrightarrow A$, whose family of propositions indexed by $x \in A$ is represented by the preimages $i^*(x)$.

• The internal existential quantifier of an internal predicate $i:P \hookrightarrow A$ is the image of the unique function $!_P:P \to \top$ into the singleton $\top$.

$\exists_A P = \im(!_P)$
$\forall_A P = \{f \in P^A \vert \forall x \in A, f(x) \in i^*(x) \}$
• An internal predicate $i:P \hookrightarrow A$ is a decidable proposition if it comes with a function $\chi_P(x):i^*(x) \to 2$ into the boolean domain for all elements $x \in A$, or equivalently if it comes with a function $\chi_P:A \to 2$ from $A$ to the boolean domain $2$.

The internal LLPO for a family of sets $(A_z)_{z \in I}$ is the LLPO for each $A_z$ stated in the internal logic of the set theory:

• The internal LPO for a family of sets $(A_z)_{z \in I}$ holds only for the internal predicates $i:P \hookrightarrow A_z$ which comes with an internal predicate $j:Q \hookrightarrow A_z$ such that $i^*(x) = \neg j^*(x)$ for all $x \in A_z$.

In particular, the internal LLPO for the family of all sets in $U$ is weak excluded middle in $U$.

The internal LLPO, like all internal versions of axioms, are weaker than the external version of LLPO, since while bounded separation implies that one can convert any external predicate $x \in A \vdash P(x)$ on a set $A$ to an internal predicate $\{x \in A \vert P(x)\} \hookrightarrow A$, it is generally not possible to convert an internal predicate to an external predicate without a reflection rule which turns subsingletons in the set theory into propositions in the external logic.

## Equivalent statements

There are various other results that are equivalent to the principles of omniscience. Here are a few:

• Let $[0,1]/(0 \sim 1)$ be the quotient of the unit interval that identifies the endpoints, and let $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ be the quotient ring; both are classically isomorphic to the circle $\mathbb{S}^1$. (Constructively, we take $\mathbb{S}^1$ to be $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$, although $S^1$ can also be constructed as a completion of $[0,1]/(0 \sim 1)$.) Constructively, there is an injection $[0,1]/(0 \sim 1) \hookrightarrow \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$, which is a bijection if and only if the $LLPO$ holds (for the appropriate kind of real number).

• The analytic LLPO for the Cauchy real numbers is equivalent to the LLPO for the natural numbers.

There are various other results that are related to the principles of omniscience. Here are a few:

### Untruncated LLPO in dependent type theory

In the context of dependent type theory, the lesser limited principles of omniscience can be translated in two ways, by interpreting “or” as propositionally truncated (“merely or”) or untruncated (“purely or”). The relationships between the truncated and untruncated LLPO are as follows are:

Thus, untruncated LLPO is strictly stronger than truncated LLPO, unlike the case for LPO and WLPO.

## Models

• The (analytic) LLPO holds in Johnstone’s topological topos, as a consequence of the preservation of finite closed unions by the inclusion of sequential spaces.

## References

Last revised on July 27, 2024 at 16:44:06. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.