A local Lie group (rarely also called Lie groupuscule) is a local / stalkwise version of a Lie group, containing information about the product operation in arbitrary small open neighborhoods of the unit element; the multiplication is defined only when the factors are sufficiently close to the unit element, and if the consecutive products of triples in both ways are defined they are associative. To every local Lie group one functorially associates its Lie algebra.
Every real Lie algebra is a Lie algebra of some local Lie group. Or in more modern and precise phrasing, the category of real local Lie groups is equivalent to the category of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras. This has been proved by Sophus Lie as his famous third theorem. The extension to the global Lie theory has been possible only after works of Élie Cartan, who extended the equivalence to the equivalence between the category of real Lie algebras and connected simply connected Lie groups.
Examples of sequences of local structures
|geometry||point||first order infinitesimal||formal = arbitrary order infinitesimal||local = stalkwise||finite|
|smooth functions||derivative||Taylor series||germ||smooth function|
|curve (path)||tangent vector||jet||germ of curve||curve|
|smooth space||infinitesimal neighbourhood||formal neighbourhood||open neighbourhood|
|function algebra||square-0 ring extension||nilpotent ring extension/formal completion||ring extension|
|arithmetic geometry||finite field||p-adic integers||localization at (p)||integers|
|Lie theory||Lie algebra||formal group||local Lie group||Lie group|
|symplectic geometry||Poisson manifold||formal deformation quantization||local strict deformation quantization||strict deformation quantization|