nLab Kan fibrant replacement

Contents

Context

Model category theory

Definitions

Morphisms

Universal constructions

Refinements

Producing new model structures

Presentation of $(\infty,1)$-categories

Model structures

for $\infty$-groupoids

for ∞-groupoids

for equivariant $\infty$-groupoids

for rational $\infty$-groupoids

for rational equivariant $\infty$-groupoids

for $n$-groupoids

for $\infty$-groups

for $\infty$-algebras

general $\infty$-algebras

specific $\infty$-algebras

for stable/spectrum objects

for $(\infty,1)$-categories

for stable $(\infty,1)$-categories

for $(\infty,1)$-operads

for $(n,r)$-categories

for $(\infty,1)$-sheaves / $\infty$-stacks

This entry describes special methods for the construction of fibrant resolutions in the classical model structure on simplicial sets.

Contents

Idea

In as far as we may think of simplicial sets having some suitable properties as a simplicial model for weak ∞-categories (for instance for quasi-categories) and of a simplicial set that has the property of being a Kan complex as an ∞-groupoid, Kan fibrant replacement of simplicial sets is the operation of $\infty$-groupoidification in that it sends an $\infty$-category to the $\infty$-groupoid obtained by freely inverting all its non-invertible k-morphisms.

Technically, the terminology comes from the fact that with respect to the standard model structure on simplicial sets the Kan complexes are precisely the fibrant objects.

There are several methods to actually construct the Kan fibrant replacement. One convenient one, called the $Ex$ functor – described below – constructs an $\infty$-groupoid from (the nerve of) an $\infty$-category $C$ by

• taking its 1-morphisms to be (co)spans in $C$;

• taking its 2-morphisms to be cospan-of-cospan multispans in $C$:

• taking its 3-morphisms to be cospan-of-cospan-of-cospan multispans in $C$:

• etc.

The $Ex$-functor

For $\Delta^k$ the simplicial $k$-simplex let $sd \Delta^k$ be its barycentric subdivision : this is the simplicial set that is the nerve of the poset of non-degenerate sub-simplices in $\Delta^k$.

Notice that this simplicial set $sd \Delta^k$ encodes the shape of a $k$-fold cospan of cospans.

For instance,

$sd \Delta^1 = \{0 \to (0,1) \leftarrow 1\}$

is the ordinary cospan.

These multi-cospan simplicial sets define a functor $Ex : SSet \to SSet$ by setting

$(Ex X)_k = Hom_{SSet}(sd \Delta[k], X) \,.$

So this functor reads in a simplicial set $X$ and spits out the simplicial set whose 1-cells are cospans in $X$.

This comes with a natural map

$X \to Ex X \,.$

Iterating this construction indefinitely defines a simplicial set $Ex^\infty X$ to be the colimit over

$X \to Ex X \to Ex Ex X \to \cdots \,.$

The 1–cells in $Ex^\infty X$ are zig-zags in $X$.

Then

Proposition

• $Ex^\infty X$ is a Kan complex;

• $X \to Ex^\infty X$ is a natural weak equivalence, in fact, an acyclic cofibration, even more strongly, it is a strong anodyne extension, i.e., a transfinite composition of cobase changes of horn inclusions (without retracts involved).

• $Ex^\infty$ preserves all 5 classes of maps: weak equivalences, (acyclic) cofibrations, and (acyclic) fibrations, as well as strong anodyne extensions and simplicial homotopy equivalences.

• $Ex^\infty$ preserves finite limits and filtered colimits.

• $Ex^\infty(f)$ is a simplicial homotopy equivalence if and only if $f$ is a simplicial weak equivalence.

Applications

For now, see here:

References

An original reference is

• Dan Kan, On c.s.s. complexes, Amer. J. Math. 79 (1957), 449-476.

A standard textbook reference is

A summary of the basics is in

Discussion in the context of simplicial presheaves is section 3 of

The analog of $Ex$ for the (localization of) quasi-categories incarnated as marked simplicial sets: