Examples/classes:
Related concepts:
The space of knots in the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^3$ (or in the 3-sphere $S^3$) is an open submanifold of the smooth loop space. Knot invariants are locally constant functions on this manifold. The complement of the space of knots is called the discriminant and consists of all singular knots.
If we consider those singular knots with only a finite number of double points, we can build a cubical complex? from this data. The vertices in the complex are labelled by the isotopy classes of knots, and more generally the $n$-cubes by the isotopy classes of singular knots with $n$ double points (and a few other technical pieces of information). The boundary operator resolves a double crossing either upwards or downwards according to the orientation at the crossing.
A Vassiliev invariant is simply a cubical morphism from this complex to an abelian group that vanishes above a certain degree.
One does not need the language of cubical complexes to define Vassiliev invariants. Rather, there is a general method whereby a knot invariant can be extended to all singular knots with only finitely many double points (and no other singularities) using the Vassiliev skein relations.
A Vassiliev invariant of degree (or order) $\le n$ is a knot invariant whose extension to singular knots (with double points) vanishes on all singular knots with more than $n$ double points.
As is standard, it is of degree $n$ if it is of degree $\le n$ but not $\le n - 1$. Vassiliev invariants are also called finite type invariants.
The degree of Vassiliev invariants defines a filtration on the space of knots (and more particularly, on the algebra of knots?). Two knots are $n$-equivalent if all the Vassiliev invariants of degree $\le n$ agree on them. In particular, a knot that is $n$-equivalent to the unknot is said to be $n$-trivial.
A function which is constant on nonsingular knots may be extended to a Vassiliev invariant of degree 0 by applying the Vassiliev skein relations, and conversely, any Vassiliev invariant of degree 0 must be constant on nonsingular knots. Likewise, any Vassiliev invariant of degree 1 must be constant on nonsingular knots.
Any singular knot $f : S^1 \to \mathbb{R}^3$ with $n$ distinct double points $x_1,\dots,x_n \in \mathbb{R}^3$ gives rise to a chord diagram of order $n$, consisting of the circle $S^1$ with a chord connecting each pair of points $f^{-1}(x_1), \dots, f^{-1}(x_n)$.
The importance of this construction for singular knots comes from the fact that any finite type invariant determines a function on chord diagrams:
Let $v$ be a Vassiliev invariant of degree $\le n$. Then the value of $v$ on a singular knot with $n$ distinct double points depends only on the chord diagram of the knot, and not on the knot itself.
Conversely, one can ask which functions on chord diagrams come from finite type invariants. The answer is that Vassiliev invariants (of degree $\le n$) can essentially be identified with weight systems (of order $n$), which are functions on chord diagrams (of order $n$) satisfying two properties called the “1-term relation” (or “framing independence”) and the “4-term relation”: see Theorem 1 of Bar-Natan 95 (or Theorem 6.2.13 of Lando & Zvonkin).
We discuss the relation between Vassiliev invariants and the Euler characteristic of the ordinary homology of loop spaces of configuration spaces of points:
For $n, q \in \mathbb{N}$ and $q \geq 1$, write
$Conf_n\big( \mathbb{R}^{q+2} \big)$ for the configuration space of n ordered points in Euclidean space $mathbb{R}^{q+2}$;
$\Omega Conf_n\big( \mathbb{R}^{q+2} \big)$ for the corresponding based loop space (for any choice of base point);
$H_\bullet\Big(\Omega Conf_n\big( \mathbb{R}^{q+2} \big), \mathbb{C} \Big)$ for the ordinary homology of this loop space, with coefficients in the complex numbers;
$\chi H_\bullet\Big(\Omega Conf_n\big( \mathbb{R}^{q+2} \big), \mathbb{C} \Big)$ for the Euler characteristic-series of the homology
Write also
$V^n_k$ for the complex vector space of Vassiliev invariants of order $k$ for pure braids with $n$ strands;;
$A^n_k$ for the complex vector space spanned by the horizontal chord diagrams with $n$ vertical strands modulo the “horizontal 4T relation”
such that there is an linear isomorphism
between the quotient vector space of Vassiliev invariants and the dual vector space of chord diagrams.
Then:
The Euler characteristic-series (…) of the homology of the loop spaces of configuration spaces
and is related to the complex dimensions of spaces of Vassiliev invariants according to
(Cohen-Gitler 01, Prop. 9.1, based on Cohen 76 and Kohno 94)
(…)
The original articles are
Viktor Vassiliev, Complements of discriminants of smooth maps: topology and applications, Amer. Math. Soc. 1992.
Maxim Kontsevich, Vassiliev’s knot invariants, Advances in Soviet Mathematics, Volume 16, Part 2, 1993 (pdf)
Review:
Dror Bar-Natan, On the Vassiliev knot invariants, Topology Volume 34, Issue 2, April 1995, Pages 423-472 (web, doi:10.1016/0040-9383(95)93237-2)
S. Chmutov, S. Duzhin, J. Mostovoy, Introduction to Vassiliev knot invariants (arxiv/1103.5628)
Sergei K. Lando and Alexander K. Zvonkin, Chapter 6 of: Graphs on Surfaces and Their Applications, Springer, 2004.
More literature is listed at
See also
Concrete computations:
Jan Kneissler, On spaces of connected graphs I: Properties of Ladders, Proc. Internat. Conf. “Knots in Hellas ‘98”, Series on Knots and Everything, vol. 24 (2000), 252-273 (arXiv:math/0301018)
Jan Kneissler, On spaces of connected graphs II: Relations in the algebra Lambda, Jour. of Knot Theory and its Ramif. vol. 10, no. 5 (2001), 667-674 (arXiv:math/0301019)
Jan Kneissler, On spaces of connected graphs III: The Ladder Filtration, Jour. of Knot Theory and its Ramif. vol. 10, no. 5 (2001), 675-686 (arXiv:math/0301020)
Pierre Vogel, Algebraic structures on modules of diagrams, Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Volume 215, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 1292-1339 (pdf)
Relation to the Jones polynomial:
Relation to other polynomial knot invariants:
Relation to the Euler characteristic of the ordinary homology of loop spaces of configuration spaces of points
based on
Toshitake Kohno, Vassiliev invariants and de Rham complex on the space of knots, Contemporary Mathematics 179 (1994): 123-123.
Fred Cohen, The homology of $\mathcal{C}_{n+1}$-Spaces, $n \geq 0$. In: The Homology of Iterated Loop Spaces. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol 533. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1976 (doi:10.1007/BFb0080467)
Discussion of higher order Vassiliev invariants as Chern-Simons theory-correlators, hence as configuration space-integrals of wedge products of Chern-Simons propagators assigned to edges of Feynman diagrams in the graph complex:
Daniel Altschuler, Laurent Freidel, Vassiliev knot invariants and Chern-Simons perturbation theory to all orders, Commun. Math. Phys. 187 (1997) 261-287 (arxiv:q-alg/9603010)
Alberto Cattaneo, Paolo Cotta-Ramusino, Riccardo Longoni, Configuration spaces and Vassiliev classes in any dimension, Algebr. Geom. Topol. 2 (2002) 949-1000 (arXiv:math/9910139)
Alberto Cattaneo, Paolo Cotta-Ramusino, Riccardo Longoni, Algebraic structures on graph cohomology, Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications, Vol. 14, No. 5 (2005) 627-640 (arXiv:math/0307218)
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Last revised on October 10, 2019 at 17:58:47. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.