basics
Examples
In solid state physics and quantum many-body physics, and specifically in the context of topological phases of matter, by a dimer one means an edge $a \to b$ in some graph that models a given physical system.
Typically this goes along with some prescription for what is to be associated with/modeled by this dimer.
For example a Majorana dimer encodes an pair of entangled qbits (“spins”). In Majorana dimer codes these dimers arrange as the chords of a chord diagram, see at holographic entanglement entropy the section Chord diagram, representation.
Survey:
Richard Kenyon, Andrei Okounkov, What is… a dimer?, Notices of the AMS, Vol. 52 No 3 (2005) (pdf)
Richard Kenyon, An introduction to the dimer model (arXiv:math/0310326)
Original articles:
As a model for superconductivity:
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