symmetric monoidal (∞,1)-category of spectra
Various phenomena in the context of algebraic geometry/arithmetic geometry (and particularly in the context of algebraic groups) over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$ turn out to make perfect sense as expressions in $q$ when extrapolated to the case $q=1$, and to reflect interesting (combinatorial, representation theoretical…) facts, even though, of course, there is no actual field with a single element (since in a field by definition the elements 1 and 0 are distinct).
Motivated by such observations, Jacques Tits envisioned in (Tits 57) a new kind of geometry adapted to the explanation of these identities. Christophe Soulé then expanded on Tits’ ideas by introducing the notion of field with one element and studying its fine arithmetic invariants. While there is no field with a single element in the standard sense of field, the idea is that there is some other object, denoted $\mathbb{F}_1$, such that it does make sense to speak of “geometry over $\mathbb{F}_1$”. Following the French pronunciation one also writes $F_{un}$ (and is thus led to the inevitable pun).
In the relative point of view the $S$-schemes are schemes with a morphism of schemes over a base scheme $S$; but every $S$-scheme is a scheme over Spec(Z). In absolute algebraic geometry all “generalized schemes” should live over $Spec(F_1)$ and $Spec(F_1)$ should live below $Spec(\mathbb{Z})$; this is similar to the fact that the quotient stacks like $[*/G]$ live below the single point $*$ (there is a direct image functor from sheaves on a point to sheaves over $[*/G]$). One of the principal and very bold hopes is that the study of $F_{un}$ should lead to a natural proof of Riemann conjecture (see also MathOverflow here). It was originally suggested by (Manin 95) that the Riemann hypothesis might be solved by finding an $\mathbb{F}_1$-analogue of André Weil’s proof for the case of arithmetic curves over the finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$.
A first proposal for what a variety “over $\mathbb{F}_1$” ought to be is due to (Soulé 04). After that a plethora of further proposals appeared, including (Connes-Consani 08).
Maybe an emerging consensus is that the preferred approach is Borger's absolute geometry (Borger 09). Here the structure of a Lambda-ring on a ring $R$, hence on $Spec(R) \to Spec(\mathbb{Z})$, is interpreted as a collection of lifts of all Frobenius morphisms and hence as descent data for descent to $Spec(\mathbb{F}_1)$ (which is defined thereby). This definition yields an essential geometric morphism of gros etale toposes
where on the right the notation is just suggestive, the topos is a suitable one over Lambda-rings. Here the middle inverse image is the forgetful functor which forgets the Lambda structure, and its right adjoint direct image is given by the arithmetic jet space construction (via the ring of Witt vectors construction).
This proposal seems to subsume many aspects of other existing proposals (see e.g. Le Bruyn 13) and stands out as yielding an “absolute base topos” $Et(Spec(\mathbb{F}_1))$ which is rich and genuinely interesting in its own right.
number fields (“function fields of curves over F1”) | function fields of curves over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$ (arithmetic curves) | Riemann surfaces/complex curves | |
---|---|---|---|
affine and projective line | |||
$\mathbb{Z}$ (integers) | $\mathbb{F}_q[z]$ (polynomials, function algebra on affine line $\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q}$) | $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{C}}$ (holomorphic functions on complex plane) | |
$\mathbb{Q}$ (rational numbers) | $\mathbb{F}_q(z)$ (rational functions) | meromorphic functions on complex plane | |
$p$ (prime number/non-archimedean place) | $x \in \mathbb{F}_p$ | $x \in \mathbb{C}$ | |
$\infty$ (place at infinity) | $\infty$ | ||
$Spec(\mathbb{Z})$ (Spec(Z)) | $\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q}$ (affine line) | complex plane | |
$Spec(\mathbb{Z}) \cup place_{\infty}$ | $\mathbb{P}_{\mathbb{F}_q}$ (projective line) | Riemann sphere | |
$\partial_p \coloneqq \frac{(-)^p - (-)}{p}$ (Fermat quotient) | $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ (coordinate derivation) | “ | |
genus of the rational numbers = 0 | genus of the Riemann sphere = 0 | ||
formal neighbourhoods | |||
$\mathbb{Z}_p$ (p-adic integers) | $\mathbb{F}_q[ [ t -x ] ]$ (power series around $x$) | $\mathbb{C}[ [z-x] ]$ (holomorphic functions on formal disk around $x$) | |
$Spf(\mathbb{Z}_p)\underset{Spec(\mathbb{Z})}{\times} X$ (“$p$-arithmetic jet space” of $X$ at $p$) | formal disks in $X$ | ||
$\mathbb{Q}_p$ (p-adic numbers) | $\mathbb{F}_q((z-x))$ (Laurent series around $x$) | $\mathbb{C}((z-x))$ (holomorphic functions on punctured formal disk around $x$) | |
$\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} = \underset{p\; place}{\prod^\prime}\mathbb{Q}_p$ (ring of adeles) | $\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))}$ ( adeles of function field ) | $\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} \mathbb{C}((z-x))$ (restricted product of holomorphic functions on all punctured formal disks, finitely of which do not extend to the unpunctured disks) | |
$\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{Q}} = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}})$ (group of ideles) | $\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))}$ ( ideles of function field ) | $\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z-x)))$ | |
theta functions | |||
Jacobi theta function | |||
zeta functions | |||
Riemann zeta function | Goss zeta function | ||
branched covering curves | |||
$K$ a number field ($\mathbb{Q} \hookrightarrow K$ a possibly ramified finite dimensional field extension) | $K$ a function field of an algebraic curve $\Sigma$ over $\mathbb{F}_p$ | $K_\Sigma$ (sheaf of rational functions on complex curve $\Sigma$) | |
$\mathcal{O}_K$ (ring of integers) | $\mathcal{O}_{\Sigma}$ (structure sheaf) | ||
$Spec_{an}(\mathcal{O}_K) \to Spec(\mathbb{Z})$ (spectrum with archimedean places) | $\Sigma$ (arithmetic curve) | $\Sigma \to \mathbb{C}P^1$ (complex curve being branched cover of Riemann sphere) | |
$\frac{(-)^p - \Phi(-)}{p}$ (lift of Frobenius morphism/Lambda-ring structure) | $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ | “ | |
genus of a number field | genus of an algebraic curve | genus of a surface | |
formal neighbourhoods | |||
$v$ prime ideal in ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ | $x \in \Sigma$ | $x \in \Sigma$ | |
$K_v$ (formal completion at $v$) | $\mathbb{C}((z_x))$ (function algebra on punctured formal disk around $x$) | ||
$\mathcal{O}_{K_v}$ (ring of integers of formal completion) | $\mathbb{C}[ [ z_x ] ]$ (function algebra on formal disk around $x$) | ||
$\mathbb{A}_K$ (ring of adeles) | $\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}((z_x))$ (restricted product of function rings on all punctured formal disks around all points in $\Sigma$) | ||
$\mathcal{O}$ | $\prod_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}[ [z_x] ]$ (function ring on all formal disks around all points in $\Sigma$) | ||
$\mathbb{I}_K = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)$ (group of ideles) | $\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z_x)))$ | ||
Galois theory | |||
Galois group | “ | $\pi_1(\Sigma)$ fundamental group | |
Galois representation | “ | flat connection (“local system”) on $\Sigma$ | |
class field theory | |||
class field theory | “ | geometric class field theory | |
Hilbert reciprocity law | Artin reciprocity law | Weil reciprocity law | |
$GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)$ (idele class group) | “ | ||
$GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)/GL_1(\mathcal{O})$ | “ | $Bun_{GL_1}(\Sigma)$ (moduli stack of line bundles, by Weil uniformization theorem) | |
non-abelian class field theory and automorphy | |||
number field Langlands correspondence | function field Langlands correspondence | geometric Langlands correspondence | |
$GL_n(K) \backslash GL_n(\mathbb{A}_K)//GL_n(\mathcal{O})$ (constant sheaves on this stack form unramified automorphic representations) | “ | $Bun_{GL_n(\mathbb{C})}(\Sigma)$ (moduli stack of bundles on the curve $\Sigma$, by Weil uniformization theorem) | |
Tamagawa-Weil for number fields | Tamagawa-Weil for function fields | ||
theta functions | |||
Hecke theta function | functional determinant line bundle of Dirac operator/chiral Laplace operator on $\Sigma$ | ||
zeta functions | |||
Dedekind zeta function | Weil zeta function | zeta function of a Riemann surface/of the Laplace operator on $\Sigma$ | |
higher dimensional spaces | |||
zeta functions | Hasse-Weil zeta function |
After the very first observations by Tits, pioneers were Christophe Soulé and Kapranov and Smirnov. More recently there are extensive works by Alain Connes and Katia Consani, Nikolai Durov, James Borger and Oliver Lorscheid.
See also Lambda-ring, blue scheme and tropical geometry.
A survey of the various competing theories is
Javier López Peña, Oliver Lorscheid, Mapping $F_1$-land:An overview of geometries over the field with one element, arXiv/0909.0069
Alain Connes, Fun with $\mathbf{F}_1$, 5 min. video
Lieven Le Bruyn, The field with one element, seminar notes 2008 (web)
Oliver Lorscheid, Lectures on $\mathbb{F}_1$, 2014 (pdf)
Jacques Tits, Sur les analogues algebriques des groupes semi-simples complexes. In Colloque d’algebre superieure, tenu a Bruxelles du 19 au 22 decembre 1956, Centre Belge de Recherches Mathematiques, pages 261{289. Etablissements Ceuterick, Louvain, 1957.
Christophe Soulé, Les varietes sur le corps a un element Mosc. Math. J., 4(1):217-244, 312, 2004.
Yuri Manin, Lectures on zeta functions and motives (according to Deninger and Kurokawa) Asterisque, (228):4, 121-163, 1995. Columbia University Number Theory Seminar.
Bertrand Toen, Michel Vaquie, Under Spec Z (arXiv:math/0509684)
Around (0.4.24.2) in
the algebraic structure of $\mathbb{F}_1$ is regarded as being the maybe monad, hence modules over $\mathbb{F}_1$ are defined to be monad-algebras over the maybe monad, hence pointed sets.
Other approaches include
Alain Connes, Caterina Consani, Matilde Marcolli, Fun with $\mathbf{F}_1$, arxiv/0806.2401
Yuri Manin, Cyclotomy and analytic geometry over $F_1$, arxiv/0809.1564
Alain Connes, Caterina Consani, On the notion of geometry over $\F_1$, arxiv/0809.2926; Schemes over $\F_1$ and zeta functions, arxiv/0903.2024; Characteristic one, entropy and the absolute point, in: Noncommutative Geometry, Arithmetic, and Related Topics, 21st Meeting of the Japan-U.S. Math. Inst., Baltimore 2009, JHUP (2012), pp. 75–139, arxiv/0911.3537; From monoids to hyperstructures: in search of an absolute arithmetic, arxiv/1006.4810; On the arithmetic of the BC-system, arxiv/1103.4672; Projective geometry in characteristic one and the epicyclic category, arxiv/1309.0406
M. Marcolli, Ryan Thorngren, Thermodynamical semirings, arXiv/1108.2874
Bora Yalkinoglu, On Endomotives, Lambda-rings and Bost-Connes systems, With an appendix by Sergey Neshveyev, arxiv/1105.5022
The approach in terms of Lambda-rings due to
with details in
James Borger, The basic geometry of Witt vectors, I: The affine case (arXiv:0801.1691)
James Borger, The basic geometry of Witt vectors, II: Spaces (arXiv:1006.0092)
More discussion relating to this includes