zeta function of a Riemann surface



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The zeta function naturally associated to a Riemann surface/complex curve, hence the zeta function of an elliptic differential operator for the Laplace operator on the Riemann surface (and hence hence essentially the Feynman propagator for the scalar fields on that surface) is directly analogous to the zeta functions associated with arithmetic curves, notably the Artin L-functions.

(Minakshisundaram-Pleijel 49) considered the zeta function of an elliptic differential operator for the Laplace operator on a Riemann surface.

Motivated by the resemblance of the Selberg trace formula to Weil’s formula for the sum of zeros of the Riemann zeta function, (Selberg 56) defined for any compact hyperbolic Riemann surface a zeta function-like expression, the Selberg zeta function of a Riemann surface. (e.g. Bump, below theorem 19).

Much of this is more generally defined/considered on higher dimensional hyperbolic manifolds.

That the Selberg zeta function is indeed proportional to the zeta function of a Laplace operator is due to (D’Hoker-Phong 86, Sarnak 87), and that it is similarly related to the eta function of a Dirac operator on the given Riemann surface/hyperbolic manifold goes back to (Milson 78), with further development including (Park 01). For review of the literature on this relation see also the beginning of (Friedman 06).


For a complex torus / complex elliptic curve

For /(τ)\mathbb{C}/(\mathbb{Z}\oplus \tau \mathbb{Z}) a complex torus (complex elliptic curve) equipped with its standard flat Riemannian metric, then the zeta function of the corresponding Laplace operator Δ\Delta is

ζ Δ=(2π) 2sE(s)(2π) 2s(k,l)×(0,0)1|k+τl| 2s. \zeta_{\Delta} = (2\pi)^{-2 s} E(s) \coloneqq (2\pi)^{-2 s} \underset{(k,l)\in \mathbb{Z}\times\mathbb{Z}-(0,0)}{\sum} \frac{1}{{\vert k +\tau l\vert}^{2s}} \,.

The corresponding functional determinant is

exp(E Δ (0))=(Imτ) 2|η(τ)| 4, \exp( E^\prime_{\Delta}(0) ) = (Im \tau)^2 {\vert \eta(\tau)\vert}^4 \,,

where η\eta is the Dedekind eta function.

(recalled e.g. in Todorov 03, page 3)

Of Dirac operators twisted by a flat connection

For AA a flat connection on a Riemannian manifold, write D AD_A for the Dirac operator twisted by this connection.

On a suitable hyperbolic manifold, the partition function/theta function for D AD_A appears in (Bunke-Olbrich 94, prop. 6.3) (and Bunke-Olbrich 94a, def. 3.1) for the odd dimensional case). The corresponding Selberg zeta formula is (Bunke-Olbrich 94a, def. 4.1). This has a form analogous to that of Artin L-functions with the flat connection replaced by a Galois representation.


Analogy with Artin L-function

That the Selberg/Ruelle zeta function is equivalently an Euler product of characteristic polynomials is due to (Gangolli 77, (2.72) Fried 86, prop. 5).

That it is in particular the Euler product of characteristic polynomials of the monodromies/holonomies of the flat connection corresponding to the given group representation is (Bunke-Olbrich 94, prop. 6.3) for the even-dimensional case and (Bunke-Olbrich 94a) for the odd-dimensional case.

Notice that this is analogous to the standard definition of an Artin L-function if one interprets a Frobenius map Frob pFrob_p (as discussed there) as an element of the arithmetic fundamental group of an arithmetic curve and a Galois representation as a flat connection.

Function field analogy

function field analogy

number fields (“function fields of curves over F1”)function fields of curves over finite fields 𝔽 q\mathbb{F}_q (arithmetic curves)Riemann surfaces/complex curves
affine and projective line
\mathbb{Z} (integers)𝔽 q[z]\mathbb{F}_q[z] (polynomials, function algebra on affine line 𝔸 𝔽 q 1\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q})𝒪 \mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{C}} (holomorphic functions on complex plane)
\mathbb{Q} (rational numbers)𝔽 q(z)\mathbb{F}_q(z) (rational functions)meromorphic functions on complex plane
pp (prime number/non-archimedean place)x𝔽 px \in \mathbb{F}_pxx \in \mathbb{C}
\infty (place at infinity)\infty
Spec()Spec(\mathbb{Z}) (Spec(Z))𝔸 𝔽 q 1\mathbb{A}^1_{\mathbb{F}_q} (affine line)complex plane
Spec()place Spec(\mathbb{Z}) \cup place_{\infty} 𝔽 q\mathbb{P}_{\mathbb{F}_q} (projective line)Riemann sphere
p() p()p\partial_p \coloneqq \frac{(-)^p - (-)}{p} (Fermat quotient)z\frac{\partial}{\partial z} (coordinate derivation)
genus of the rational numbers = 0genus of the Riemann sphere = 0
formal neighbourhoods
p\mathbb{Z}_p (p-adic integers)𝔽 q[[tx]]\mathbb{F}_q[ [ t -x ] ] (power series around xx)[[zx]]\mathbb{C}[ [z-x] ] (holomorphic functions on formal disk around xx)
Spf( p)×Spec()XSpf(\mathbb{Z}_p)\underset{Spec(\mathbb{Z})}{\times} X (“pp-arithmetic jet space” of XX at pp)formal disks in XX
p\mathbb{Q}_p (p-adic numbers)𝔽 q((zx))\mathbb{F}_q((z-x)) (Laurent series around xx)((zx))\mathbb{C}((z-x)) (holomorphic functions on punctured formal disk around xx)
𝔸 = pplace p\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} = \underset{p\; place}{\prod^\prime}\mathbb{Q}_p (ring of adeles)𝔸 𝔽 q((t))\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))} ( adeles of function field ) x((zx))\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} \mathbb{C}((z-x)) (restricted product of holomorphic functions on all punctured formal disks, finitely of which do not extend to the unpunctured disks)
𝕀 =GL 1(𝔸 )\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{Q}} = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}}) (group of ideles)𝕀 𝔽 q((t))\mathbb{I}_{\mathbb{F}_q((t))} ( ideles of function field ) xGL 1(((zx)))\underset{x \in \mathbb{C}}{\prod^\prime} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z-x)))
theta functions
Jacobi theta function
zeta functions
Riemann zeta functionGoss zeta function
branched covering curves
KK a number field (K\mathbb{Q} \hookrightarrow K a possibly ramified finite dimensional field extension)KK a function field of an algebraic curve Σ\Sigma over 𝔽 p\mathbb{F}_pK ΣK_\Sigma (sheaf of rational functions on complex curve Σ\Sigma)
𝒪 K\mathcal{O}_K (ring of integers)𝒪 Σ\mathcal{O}_{\Sigma} (structure sheaf)
Spec an(𝒪 K)Spec()Spec_{an}(\mathcal{O}_K) \to Spec(\mathbb{Z}) (spectrum with archimedean places)Σ\Sigma (arithmetic curve)ΣP 1\Sigma \to \mathbb{C}P^1 (complex curve being branched cover of Riemann sphere)
() pΦ()p\frac{(-)^p - \Phi(-)}{p} (lift of Frobenius morphism/Lambda-ring structure)z\frac{\partial}{\partial z}
genus of a number fieldgenus of an algebraic curvegenus of a surface
formal neighbourhoods
vv prime ideal in ring of integers 𝒪 K\mathcal{O}_KxΣx \in \SigmaxΣx \in \Sigma
K vK_v (formal completion at vv)((z x))\mathbb{C}((z_x)) (function algebra on punctured formal disk around xx)
𝒪 K v\mathcal{O}_{K_v} (ring of integers of formal completion)[[z x]]\mathbb{C}[ [ z_x ] ] (function algebra on formal disk around xx)
𝔸 K\mathbb{A}_K (ring of adeles) xΣ ((z x))\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}((z_x)) (restricted product of function rings on all punctured formal disks around all points in Σ\Sigma)
𝒪\mathcal{O} xΣ[[z x]]\prod_{x\in \Sigma} \mathbb{C}[ [z_x] ] (function ring on all formal disks around all points in Σ\Sigma)
𝕀 K=GL 1(𝔸 K)\mathbb{I}_K = GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K) (group of ideles) xΣ GL 1(((z x)))\prod^\prime_{x\in \Sigma} GL_1(\mathbb{C}((z_x)))
Galois theory
Galois groupπ 1(Σ)\pi_1(\Sigma) fundamental group
Galois representationflat connection (“local system”) on Σ\Sigma
class field theory
class field theorygeometric class field theory
Hilbert reciprocity lawArtin reciprocity lawWeil reciprocity law
GL 1(K)\GL 1(𝔸 K)GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K) (idele class group)
GL 1(K)\GL 1(𝔸 K)/GL 1(𝒪)GL_1(K)\backslash GL_1(\mathbb{A}_K)/GL_1(\mathcal{O})Bun GL 1(Σ)Bun_{GL_1}(\Sigma) (moduli stack of line bundles, by Weil uniformization theorem)
non-abelian class field theory and automorphy
number field Langlands correspondencefunction field Langlands correspondencegeometric Langlands correspondence
GL n(K)\GL n(𝔸 K)//GL n(𝒪)GL_n(K) \backslash GL_n(\mathbb{A}_K)//GL_n(\mathcal{O}) (constant sheaves on this stack form unramified automorphic representations)Bun GL n()(Σ)Bun_{GL_n(\mathbb{C})}(\Sigma) (moduli stack of bundles on the curve Σ\Sigma, by Weil uniformization theorem)
Tamagawa-Weil for number fieldsTamagawa-Weil for function fields
theta functions
Hecke theta functionfunctional determinant line bundle of Dirac operator/chiral Laplace operator on Σ\Sigma
zeta functions
Dedekind zeta functionWeil zeta functionzeta function of a Riemann surface/of the Laplace operator on Σ\Sigma
higher dimensional spaces
zeta functionsHasse-Weil zeta function
context/function field analogytheta function θ\thetazeta function ζ\zeta (= Mellin transform of θ(0,)\theta(0,-))L-function L zL_{\mathbf{z}} (= Mellin transform of θ(z,)\theta(\mathbf{z},-))eta function η\etaspecial values of L-functions
physics/2d CFTpartition function θ(z,τ)=Tr(exp(τ(D z) 2))\theta(\mathbf{z},\mathbf{\tau}) = Tr(\exp(-\mathbf{\tau} \cdot (D_\mathbf{z})^2)) as function of complex structure τ\mathbf{\tau} of worldsheet Σ\Sigma (hence polarization of phase space) and background gauge field/source z\mathbf{z}analytically continued trace of Feynman propagator ζ(s)=Tr reg(1(D 0) 2) s= 0 τ s1θ(0,τ)dτ\zeta(s) = Tr_{reg}\left(\frac{1}{(D_{0})^2}\right)^s = \int_{0}^\infty \tau^{s-1} \,\theta(0,\tau)\, d\tauanalytically continued trace of Feynman propagator in background gauge field z\mathbf{z}: L z(s)Tr reg(1(D z) 2) s= 0 τ s1θ(z,τ)dτL_{\mathbf{z}}(s) \coloneqq Tr_{reg}\left(\frac{1}{(D_{\mathbf{z}})^2}\right)^s = \int_{0}^\infty \tau^{s-1} \,\theta(\mathbf{z},\tau)\, d\tauanalytically continued trace of Dirac propagator in background gauge field z\mathbf{z} η z(s)=Tr reg(sgn(D z)|D z|) s\eta_{\mathbf{z}}(s) = Tr_{reg} \left(\frac{sgn(D_{\mathbf{z}})}{ { \vert D_{\mathbf{z}} } \vert }\right)^s regularized 1-loop vacuum amplitude pvL z(1)=Tr reg(1(D z) 2)pv\, L_{\mathbf{z}}(1) = Tr_{reg}\left(\frac{1}{(D_{\mathbf{z}})^2}\right) / regularized fermionic 1-loop vacuum amplitude pvη z(1)=Tr reg(D z(D z) 2)pv\, \eta_{\mathbf{z}}(1)= Tr_{reg} \left( \frac{D_{\mathbf{z}}}{(D_{\mathbf{z}})^2} \right) / vacuum energy 12L z (0)=Z H=12lndet reg(D z 2)-\frac{1}{2}L_{\mathbf{z}}^\prime(0) = Z_H = \frac{1}{2}\ln\;det_{reg}(D_{\mathbf{z}}^2)
Riemannian geometry (analysis)zeta function of an elliptic differential operatorzeta function of an elliptic differential operatoreta function of a self-adjoint operatorfunctional determinant, analytic torsion
complex analytic geometrysection θ(z,τ)\theta(\mathbf{z},\mathbf{\tau}) of line bundle over Jacobian variety J(Σ τ)J(\Sigma_{\mathbf{\tau}}) in terms of covering coordinates z\mathbf{z} on gJ(Σ τ)\mathbb{C}^g \to J(\Sigma_{\mathbf{\tau}})zeta function of a Riemann surfaceSelberg zeta functionDedekind eta function
arithmetic geometry for a function fieldGoss zeta function (for arithmetic curves) and Weil zeta function (in higher dimensional arithmetic geometry)
arithmetic geometry for a number fieldHecke theta function, automorphic formDedekind zeta function (being the Artin L-function L zL_{\mathbf{z}} for z=0\mathbf{z} = 0 the trivial Galois representation)Artin L-function L zL_{\mathbf{z}} of a Galois representation z\mathbf{z}, expressible “in coordinates” (by Artin reciprocity) as a finite-order Hecke L-function (for 1-dimensional representations) and generally (via Langlands correspondence) by an automorphic L-function (for higher dimensional reps)class number \cdot regulator
arithmetic geometry for \mathbb{Q}Jacobi theta function (z=0\mathbf{z} = 0)/ Dirichlet theta function (z=χ\mathbf{z} = \chi a Dirichlet character)Riemann zeta function (being the Dirichlet L-function L zL_{\mathbf{z}} for Dirichlet character z=0\mathbf{z} = 0)Artin L-function of a Galois representation z\mathbf{z} , expressible “in coordinates” (via Artin reciprocity) as a Dirichlet L-function (for 1-dimensional Galois representations) and generally (via Langlands correspondence) as an automorphic L-function


Original articles include

  • S. Minakshisundaram, ; Å Pleijel, Some properties of the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-operator on Riemannian manifolds (1949), Canadian Journal of Mathematics 1: 242–256, doi:10.4153/CJM-1949-021-5, ISSN 0008-414X, MR 0031145 (web)

  • Atle Selberg, Harmonic analysis and discontinuous groups in weakly symmetric Riemannian spaces with applications to Dirichlet series, Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society 20 (1956) 47-87.

  • John Milson?, Closed geodesic and the η\eta-invariant, Ann. of Math., 108, (1978) 1-39 ()

Review includes

Expression of the Selberg/Ruelle zeta function as an Euler product of characteristic polynomials is due to

  • Ramesh Gangolli, Zeta functions of Selberg’s type for compact space forms of symmetric spaces of rank one, Illinois J. Math. Volume 21, Issue 1 (1977), 1-41. (Euclid)

  • David Fried, The zeta functions of Ruelle and Selberg. I, Annales scientifiques de l’École Normale Supérieure, Sér. 4, 19 no. 4 (1986), p. 491-517 (Numdam)

Discussion of the relation between, on the one hand, zeta function of Laplace operators/eta funcstions of Dirac operators and, on the other hand, Selberg zeta functions includes

  • Eric D'HokerDuong Phong, Communications in Mathematical Physics, Volume 104, Number 4 (1986), 537-545 (Euclid)

  • Peter Sarnak, Determinants of Laplacians, Communications in Mathematical Physics, Volume 110, Number 1 (1987), 113-120. (Euclid)

  • Ulrich Bunke, Martin Olbrich, Andreas Juhl, The wave kernel for the Laplacian on the classical locally symmetric spaces of rank one, theta functions, trace formulas and the Selberg zeta function, Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry February 1994, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 357-405

  • Ulrich Bunke, Martin Olbrich, Theta and zeta functions for locally symmetric spaces of rank one (arXiv:dg-ga/9407013)

and for odd-dimensional spaces also in

See also

  • Andrey Todorov, The analogue of the Dedekind eta function for CY threefolds, 2003 pdf

Last revised on August 29, 2014 at 08:28:48. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.