nLab arithmetic jet space



Arithmetic geometry

Synthetic differential geometry

synthetic differential geometry


from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds

geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry



smooth space


The magic algebraic facts




infinitesimal cohesion

tangent cohesion

differential cohesion

graded differential cohesion

singular cohesion

id id fermionic bosonic bosonic Rh rheonomic reduced infinitesimal infinitesimal & étale cohesive ʃ discrete discrete continuous * \array{ && id &\dashv& id \\ && \vee && \vee \\ &\stackrel{fermionic}{}& \rightrightarrows &\dashv& \rightsquigarrow & \stackrel{bosonic}{} \\ && \bot && \bot \\ &\stackrel{bosonic}{} & \rightsquigarrow &\dashv& \mathrm{R}\!\!\mathrm{h} & \stackrel{rheonomic}{} \\ && \vee && \vee \\ &\stackrel{reduced}{} & \Re &\dashv& \Im & \stackrel{infinitesimal}{} \\ && \bot && \bot \\ &\stackrel{infinitesimal}{}& \Im &\dashv& \& & \stackrel{\text{étale}}{} \\ && \vee && \vee \\ &\stackrel{cohesive}{}& \esh &\dashv& \flat & \stackrel{discrete}{} \\ && \bot && \bot \\ &\stackrel{discrete}{}& \flat &\dashv& \sharp & \stackrel{continuous}{} \\ && \vee && \vee \\ && \emptyset &\dashv& \ast }


Lie theory, ∞-Lie theory

differential equations, variational calculus

Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory

Cartan geometry (super, higher)



An analog of jet spaces in arithmetic geometry.


Notice that the p-adic integers p\mathbb{Z}_p are (by the discussion at p-adic integer – as formal power series) the analog in arithmetic geometry of a formal power series ring (around the point pp \in Spec(Z)), hence their formal spectrum Spf( p)Spf(\mathbb{Z}_p) is an incarnation in arithmetic geometry of an abstract formal disk.

Therefore in the sense of synthetic differential geometry the pp-formal neighbourhood of any arithmetic scheme XX around a global point x:Spec()Xx \colon Spec(\mathbb{Z}) \to X is the space of lifts

Spf( p) x^ X Spec(). \array{ Spf(\mathbb{Z}_p) && \stackrel{\hat x}{\longrightarrow}&& X \\ & \searrow && \swarrow \\ && Spec(\mathbb{Z}) } \,.

Moreover the map that sends an commutative ring, hence an arithmetic variety, to its pp-formal power series in this sense is the construction of the ring of Witt vectors (pp-typical Witt vectors if one fixes one prime, and “big Witt vectors” if one considers all at once) - see e.g. Hartl 06, section 1.1.

The following definition says essentially this, but further sends the resulting space to F1-geometry in the sense of Borger's absolute geometry:

For X=Spec(R)X= Spec(R) an affine scheme over Spec(Z) (hence the formal dual of a ring), then the arithmetic jet space of XX at prime pp is (W n) *(W_n)_\ast applied to the pp-adic completion of XX, where (W n) *(W_n)_\ast is the ring of Witt vectors-construction, the direct image of Borger's absolute geometry Et(Spec())Et(Spec(𝔽 1))Et(Spec(\mathbb{Z})) \to Et(Spec(\mathbb{F}_1)).

The definition is originally due to (Buium 96, section 2, Buium 05, section 3.1), reviewed in (Buium 13, 1.2.3) as part of his arithmetic differential geometry program. The above formulation is in (Borger 10, (12.8.2)). Buium and Borger have also defined the notion of an arithmetic jet space for a finite set of primes in (BB09).


The original articles are

  • Alexandru Buium, Geometry of pp-jets. Duke Math. J., 82(2):349–367, 1996. (Euclid)

  • Alexandru Buium, Arithmetic differential equations, volume 118 of Mathematical Surveys and Monographs. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2005. (pdf)

Introduction and survey is in

Discussion in the context of the function field analogy is in

Discussion in the context of Borger's absolute geometry over F1 is in

See also

Last revised on June 22, 2017 at 08:37:38. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.