nLab
iterated loop space

Contents

Context

Homotopy theory

homotopy theory, (∞,1)-category theory, homotopy type theory

flavors: stable, equivariant, rational, p-adic, proper, geometric, cohesive, directed

models: topological, simplicial, localic, …

see also algebraic topology

Introductions

Definitions

Paths and cylinders

Homotopy groups

Basic facts

Theorems

Contents

Idea

A multiple loop space.

A grouplike E-k algebra in Top.

An iterated loop space object in Top.

Properties

Cohomology

Proposition

(rational cohomology of iterated loop space of the 2k-sphere)

Let

1D<n=2k 1 \leq D \lt n = 2k \in \mathbb{N}

(hence two positive natural numbers, one of them required to be even and the other required to be smaller than the first) and consider the D-fold loop space Ω DS n\Omega^D S^n of the n-sphere.

Its rational cohomology ring is the free graded-commutative algebra over \mathbb{Q} on one generator e nDe_{n-D} of degree nDn - D and one generator a 2nD1a_{2n - D - 1} of degree 2nD12n - D - 1:

H (Ω DS n,)[e nD,a 2nD1]. H^\bullet \big( \Omega^D S^n , \mathbb{Q} \big) \;\simeq\; \mathbb{Q}\big[ e_{n - D}, a_{2n - D - 1} \big] \,.

(Kallel-Sjerve 99, Prop. 4.10)


Relation to configuration spaces of points

Proposition

(iterated loop spaces equivalent to configuration spaces of points)

For

  1. dd \in \mathbb{N}, d1d \geq 1 a natural number with d\mathbb{R}^d denoting the Cartesian space/Euclidean space of that dimension,

  2. YY a manifold, with non-empty boundary so that Y/YY / \partial Y is connected,

the electric field map/scanning map constitutes a homotopy equivalence

Conf( d,Y)scanΩ dΣ d(Y/Y) Conf\left( \mathbb{R}^d, Y \right) \overset{scan}{\longrightarrow} \Omega^d \Sigma^d (Y/\partial Y)

between

  1. the configuration space of arbitrary points in d×Y\mathbb{R}^d \times Y vanishing at the boundary (Def. )

  2. the d-fold loop space of the dd-fold reduced suspension of the quotient space Y/YY / \partial Y (regarded as a pointed topological space with basepoint [Y][\partial Y]).

In particular when Y=𝔻 kY = \mathbb{D}^k is the closed ball of dimension k1k \geq 1 this gives a homotopy equivalence

Conf( d,𝔻 k)scanΩ dS d+k Conf\left( \mathbb{R}^d, \mathbb{D}^k \right) \overset{scan}{\longrightarrow} \Omega^d S^{ d + k }

with the d-fold loop space of the (d+k)-sphere.

(May 72, Theorem 2.7, Segal 73, Theorem 3, see Bödigheimer 87, Example 13)

Proposition

(stable splitting of mapping spaces out of Euclidean space/n-spheres)

For

  1. dd \in \mathbb{N}, d1d \geq 1 a natural number with d\mathbb{R}^d denoting the Cartesian space/Euclidean space of that dimension,

  2. YY a manifold, with non-empty boundary so that Y/YY / \partial Y is connected,

there is a stable weak homotopy equivalence

Σ Conf( d,Y)nΣ Conf n( d,Y) \Sigma^\infty Conf(\mathbb{R}^d, Y) \overset{\simeq}{\longrightarrow} \underset{n \in \mathbb{N}}{\oplus} \Sigma^\infty Conf_n(\mathbb{R}^d, Y)

between

  1. the suspension spectrum of the configuration space of an arbitrary number of points in d×Y\mathbb{R}^d \times Y vanishing at the boundary and distinct already as points of d\mathbb{R}^d (Def. )

  2. the direct sum (hence: wedge sum) of suspension spectra of the configuration spaces of a fixed number of points in d×Y\mathbb{R}^d \times Y, vanishing at the boundary and distinct already as points in d\mathbb{R}^d (also Def. ).

Combined with the stabilization of the electric field map/scanning map homotopy equivalence from Prop. this yields a stable weak homotopy equivalence

Maps cp( d,Σ d(Y/Y))=Maps */(S d,Σ d(Y/Y))=Ω dΣ d(Y/Y)Σ scanΣ Conf( d,Y)nΣ Conf n( d,Y) Maps_{cp}(\mathbb{R}^d, \Sigma^d (Y / \partial Y)) = Maps^{\ast/}( S^d, \Sigma^d (Y / \partial Y)) = \Omega^d \Sigma^d (Y/\partial Y) \underoverset{\Sigma^\infty scan}{\simeq}{\longrightarrow} \Sigma^\infty Conf(\mathbb{R}^d, Y) \overset{\simeq}{\longrightarrow} \underset{n \in \mathbb{N}}{\oplus} \Sigma^\infty Conf_n(\mathbb{R}^d, Y)

between the latter direct sum and the suspension spectrum of the mapping space of pointed continuous functions from the d-sphere to the dd-fold reduced suspension of Y/YY / \partial Y.

(Snaith 74, theorem 1.1, Bödigheimer 87, Example 2)

In fact by Bödigheimer 87, Example 5 this equivalence still holds with YY treated on the same footing as d\mathbb{R}^d, hence with Conf n( d,Y)Conf_n(\mathbb{R}^d, Y) on the right replaced by Conf n( d×Y)Conf_n(\mathbb{R}^d \times Y) in the well-adjusted notation of Def. :

Maps cp( d,Σ d(Y/Y))=Maps */(S d,Σ d(Y/Y))nΣ Conf n( d×Y) Maps_{cp}(\mathbb{R}^d, \Sigma^d (Y / \partial Y)) = Maps^{\ast/}( S^d, \Sigma^d (Y / \partial Y)) \overset{\simeq}{\longrightarrow} \underset{n \in \mathbb{N}}{\oplus} \Sigma^\infty Conf_n(\mathbb{R}^d \times Y)
(∞,1)-operad∞-algebragrouplike versionin Topgenerally
A-∞ operadA-∞ algebra∞-groupA-∞ space, e.g. loop spaceloop space object
E-k operadE-k algebrak-monoidal ∞-groupiterated loop spaceiterated loop space object
E-∞ operadE-∞ algebraabelian ∞-groupE-∞ space, if grouplike: infinite loop space \simeq ∞-spaceinfinite loop space object
\simeq connective spectrum\simeq connective spectrum object
stabilizationspectrumspectrum object

References

General

  • Peter May, Infinite loop space theory, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. Volume 83, Number 4 (1977), 456-494. (Euclid)

    Infinite loop space theory revisited (pdf)

  • John Adams, Infinite loop spaces, Herrmann Weyl lectures at IAS, Princeton University Press (1978)

  • Peter May, The uniqueness of infinite loop space machines, Topology, vol 17, pp. 205-224 (1978) (pdf)

  • Jacob Lurie, Section 5.1.3 of Higher Algebra

Relation to configuration spaces of points

In relation to configuration spaces of points:

  • Peter May, The geometry of iterated loop spaces, Springer 1972 (pdf)

  • Graeme Segal, Configuration-spaces and iterated loop-spaces, Invent. Math. 21 (1973), 213–221. MR 0331377 (pdf)

  • Victor Snaith, A stable decomposition of Ω nS nX\Omega^n S^n X, Journal of the London Mathematical Society 7 (1974), 577 - 583 (pdf)

  • Dusa McDuff, Configuration spaces of positive and negative particles, Topology Volume 14, Issue 1, March 1975, Pages 91-107 (doi:10.1016/0040-9383(75)90038-5)

  • Carl-Friedrich Bödigheimer, Stable splittings of mapping spaces, Algebraic topology. Springer 1987. 174-187 (pdf, pdf)

Rational cohomology

On ordinary cohomology of iterated loop spaces in relation to configuration spaces of points (see also at graph complex):

On the rational cohomology:

Last revised on October 15, 2019 at 11:26:21. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.