nLab nuclear magnetic resonance




physics, mathematical physics, philosophy of physics

Surveys, textbooks and lecture notes

theory (physics), model (physics)

experiment, measurement, computable physics



In physics, by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) one refers to resonant control of the spin of atomic nuclei through an external electromagnetic field.

One way to realize qbits (in quantum information theory and quantum computing) is as spin-quantum states manipulated via spin resonance: spin resonance qbits. A prominent example of spin resonance qbit realizations uses a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond.



See also

On Floquet theory? in nuclear magnetic resonance:

  • Konstantin L. Ivanov, Kaustubh R. Mote, Matthias Ernst, Asif Equbal, Perunthiruthy K. Madhu, Floquet theory in magnetic resonance: Formalism and applications, Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, 126127 (2021) 17-58 [doi:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2021.05.002]

Further developments:

  • Navin Khaneja et al., Optimal control of coupled spin dynamics: design of NMR pulse sequences by gradient ascent algorithms, Journal of Magnetic Resonance 172 2 (2005) 296-305 [doi:10.1016/j.jmr.2004.11.004]

  • Asif Equbal et al., Role of electron spin dynamics and coupling network in designing dynamic nuclear polarization, Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 126127 (2021) 1-16 [doi:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2021.05.003]

Spin resonance qbits

The idea of spin resonance qbits, i.e. of qbits realized on quantum mechanical spinors (e.g. electron-spin or nucleus-spin) and manipulated via spin resonance:

The very first proof-of-principle quantum computations were made with nuclear magnetic resonance-technology:

See also:

  • Lieven Vandersypen, Mark Eriksson: Quantum computing with semiconductor spins, Physics Today 72 8 (2019) 38 [[doi:10.1063/PT.3.4270]]

Exposition, review and outlook:

  • Raymond Laflamme, Emanuel Knill, et al., Introduction to NMR Quantum Information Processing, Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi” 148 Experimental Quantum Computation and Information [[arXiv;quant-ph/0207172]]

  • Asif Equbal, Molecular spin qubits for future quantum technology, talk at CQTS (Nov 2022) [[slides: pdf, video: rec]]

See also:

More on implementation of quantum logic gates on qbits realized on nucleon-spin, via pulse protocols in NMR-technology:

  • Price, Somaroo, Tseng, Gore, Fahmy,, Havel, Cory: Construction and Implementation of NMR Quantum Logic Gates for Two Spin Systems, Journal of Magnetic Resonance 140 2 (1999) 371-378 [[doi;10.1006/jmre.1999.1851]]

and analogously on electron-spin:

  • M. Yu. Volkov and K. M. Salikhov, Pulse Protocols for Quantum Computing with Electron Spins as Qubits, Appl Magn Reson 41 (2011) 145–154 [[doi:10.1007/s00723-011-0297-2]]

For references on spin resonance qbits realized on a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, see there.

There exist toy desktop quantum computers for educational purposes, operating on a couple of nuclear magnetic resonance qbits at room temperature :

Last revised on May 5, 2023 at 05:08:02. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.