Types of quantum field thories
Conversely, one says that is the Hamiltonian vector field of .
Given a classical mechanical system evolving in time, there is a symplectic manifold (or at least Poisson manifold) equipped with the vector field that generates time evolution. Its Hamiltonian is often called the Hamiltonian. This is the concept that Hamilton originally considered and which hence gives the name to the general situaiton.
The simplest, so-called “natural”, Hamiltonian (function) of a dynamical system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy:
For the fiber is the space of quantum states of the system, at given parameter time . Since this bundle is necessarily trivializable, we imagine fixing a trivialization . Then the flat connection on the bundle is canonically a 1-form on with values in linear operators on .
The component of this canonical 1-form is the Hamilton(ian) operator (or the quantum Hamiltonian) of the system.
Its parallel transport is the time evolution of quantum states. If is constant as a function on , this parallel transport assigns to the path from to in the map
If instead does depend on – called the case of time-dependent quantum mechanics – then the full formula for parallel transport applies, which is given by the path-ordered exponential?
In the physics literature this path-ordered exponential is known as the Dyson formula .
The eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian operator for a closed quantum system are exactly the energy eigenvalues of that system. Thus the Hamiltonian is interpreted as being an “energy” operator. Conservation of energy occurs when the Hamiltonian is time-independent.
Transformations and evolutions in standard quantum mechanics are represented via unitary operators where a time evolving unitary is related to the Hamiltonian via
provided the Hamiltonian is time-independent.
|Lagrangian correspondence||prequantization||prequantized Lagrangian correspondence|
higher and integrated Kostant-Souriau extensions:
|geometry||structure||unextended structure||extension by||quantum extension|
|higher prequantum geometry||cohesive ∞-group||Hamiltonian symplectomorphism ∞-group||moduli ∞-stack of -flat ∞-connections on||quantomorphism ∞-group|
|1||symplectic geometry||Lie algebra||Hamiltonian vector fields||real numbers||Hamiltonians under Poisson bracket|
|1||Lie group||Hamiltonian symplectomorphism group||circle group||quantomorphism group|
|2||2-plectic geometry||Lie 2-algebra||Hamiltonian vector fields||line Lie 2-algebra||Poisson Lie 2-algebra|
|2||Lie 2-group||Hamiltonian 2-plectomorphisms||circle 2-group||quantomorphism 2-group|
|n-plectic geometry||Lie n-algebra||Hamiltonian vector fields||line Lie n-algebra||Poisson Lie n-algebra|
|smooth n-group||Hamiltonian n-plectomorphisms||circle n-group||quantomorphism n-group|
(extension are listed for sufficiently connected )
Named after William Rowan Hamilton.