nLab fracture theorem



Homotopy theory

homotopy theory, (∞,1)-category theory, homotopy type theory

flavors: stable, equivariant, rational, p-adic, proper, geometric, cohesive, directed

models: topological, simplicial, localic, …

see also algebraic topology



Paths and cylinders

Homotopy groups

Basic facts


Arithmetic geometry



A basic fact in number theory is that the natural numbers may be decomposed into the rational numbers and the p-adic integers for all prime numbers pp. Dually in arithmetic geometry this says that Spec(Z) has a cover by all its formal disks and the complements of finitely many points, a fact that is crucial in the geometric interpretation of the function field analogy and which motivates for instance the geometric Langlands correspondence. (See below.)

Lifting this statement to stable homotopy theory and “higher arithmetic geometry” the arithmetic fracture theorem says that stable homotopy types (and suitably tame plain homotopy types) canonically decompose into their rationalization and their p-completion for all primes pp, hence into their images in rational homotopy theory and p-adic homotopy theory. Since these images are typically simpler than the original homotopy type itself, this decomposition is a fundamental computational tool in stable homotopy theory, often known under the slogan of “working one prime at a time”. (See below.)

One finds that this arithmetic fracturing in stable homotopy theory is really a statement about the Bousfield localization of spectra with respect to the Moore spectrum for \mathbb{Q} and that of /\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}. Viewed this way there is a more general fracture theorem which says that for any suitable pair E,FE,F of spectra/homology theories the Bousfield localization at their coproduct decomposes into the separate Bousfield localizations. This generalized fracture theorem appears for instance in chromatic homotopy theory for localization at Morava K-theory and Morava E-theory. (See below.)

In cohesive homotopy theory every stable homotopy type canonically sits in a fracture square formed from the localizations exhibited by the shape modality and the flat modality. For differential cohesion over infinitesimal cohesion this is a higher geometric analog of the classical arithmetic fracture. (See below.)


In number theory and arithmetic geometry

The statement in number theory/arithmetic geometry is the following:


The integers \mathbb{Z} are the fiber product of all the p-adic integers pprime p\underset{p\;prime}{\prod} \mathbb{Z}_p with the rational numbers \mathbb{Q} over the rationalization of the former, hence there is a pullback diagram in CRing of the form

(pprime p) pprime p. \array{ && \mathbb{Q} \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ \mathbb{Q}\otimes_{\mathbb{Z}}\left(\underset{p\;prime}{\prod} \mathbb{Z}_p \right) && && \mathbb{Z} \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && \underset{p\;prime}{\prod} \mathbb{Z}_p } \,.

Equivalently this is the fiber product of the rationals with the integral adeles 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}} over the ring of adeles 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}}

𝔸 𝔸 , \array{ && \mathbb{Q} \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} && && \mathbb{Z} \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}} } \,,

Since the ring of adeles is the rationalization of the integral adeles 𝔸 = 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} = \mathbb{Q} \otimes_{\mathbb{Z}} \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}}, this is also (by the discussion here) a pushout diagram in CRing, and in fact in topological commutative rings (for \mathbb{Q} with the discrete topology and 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}} with its profinite/completion topology).

An original discussion is (Sullivan 05, prop. 1.18). Review includes (Riehl 14, lemma 14.4.2).


Under the function field analogy we may think of

  • Spec()Spec(\mathbb{Z}) as an arithmetic curve over F1;

  • 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}} as the ring of functions on the formal disks around all the points in this curve;

  • \mathbb{Q} as the ring of functions on the complement of a finite number of points in the curve;

  • 𝔸 \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}} is the ring of functions on punctured formal disks around all points, at most finitely many of which do not extend to the unpunctured disk.

Under this analogy the arithmetic fracture square of prop. says that the curve Spec()Spec(\mathbb{Z}) has a cover whose patches are the complement of the curve by some points, and the formal disks around these points.

This kind of cover plays a central role in number theory, see for instance the following discussions:

In homotopy theory

In homotopy theory the corresponding statement is that homotopy types may be decomposed into that of rational homotopy types and p-complete homotopy types of p-local homotopy types.


Let pp be a prime number. Let XX be a homotopy type/∞-groupoid satisfying at least one of the following sufficient conditions

Then XX is the homotopy fiber product

XX ×(X p ) X p X \simeq X_{\mathbb{Q}} \underset{(X_p^\wedge)_{\mathbb{Q}}}{\times} X_p^\wedge

of its rationalization X X_{\mathbb{Q}} with its p-completion X p X_p^\wedge over the rationalization (X p ) (X_p^\wedge)_{\mathbb{Q}}of the pp-completions.

This originates around (Bousfield-Kan 72, VI.8.1). A detailed more modern account is in (May-Ponto, theorem 13.1.4). A quick survey is in (Riehl 14, theorem 14.4.14).

In stable homotopy theory

Similar statements hold in stable homotopy theory for spectra. There is a stable version of

but more generally there are fracture squares for the coproduct homology theory EFE \vee F whenever FF-localization is EE-acyclic:

warning: a condition missing in the following, see the comment section of this MO reply. Somebody should add the relevant clause here…

The arithmetic fracture square for spectra

For pp a prime number write


(Sullivan arithmetic square)

For every spectrum XX the canonical square

L X L ( pL pX) X pL pX \array{ && L_{\mathbb{Q}}X \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ L_{\mathbb{Q}} \left( \prod_p L_p X \right) && && X \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && \prod_p L_p X }

is a homotopy pushout (hence also a homotopy pullback).

Original statements of this include (Bousfield 79, Sullivan 05, prop. 3.20). Review includes (van Koughnett 13, prop. 4.5, Bauer 11, lemma 2.1).


(“one prime at a time”)

The impact of prop. is that it decomposes the study of (stable) homotopy theory into that of

  1. rational homotopy theory and

  2. p-adic homotopy theory for each prime pp.

Both the rationalization X X_{\mathbb{Q}} and the p-completion X p X_{p}^\wedge are typically much easier to analyze than XX itself and so the fracture theorem gives a way to decompose the remaining hard part of study of homotopy types into that of pp-local/pp-complete spaces. This procedure is known in homotopy theory as working “one prime at a time”.

More generally:


The product of all p-completions is equivalently the Bousfield localization of spectra at the wedge sum pS𝔽 p\vee_p S \mathbb{F}_p of all Moore spectra

pL pXL pS𝔽 pX. \prod_p L_p X \simeq L_{\vee_p S \mathbb{F}_p} X \,.

Moreover there is a Bousfield equivalence

S(/) Bousf pS𝔽 p, S (\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}) \simeq_{Bousf} \vee_p S \mathbb{F}_p \,,

and therefore also an equivalence

pL pXL S(/)X. \prod_p L_p X \simeq L_{S (\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z})} X \,.

The first statement originates around (Bousfield 79, prop. 2.6), review includes (van Koughnett 13, prop. 4.4, Bauer 11, below prop. 2.2); the second is highlighted in (Strickland 12, MO comment).


By the discussion at Bousfield localization of spectra and at localization of a space, the rationalization and the p-completion maps on spectra are homotopy cofibers of EE-acyclifications G E(X)XG_E(X) \to X, for E=SHE = S \mathbb{Q} \simeq H \mathbb{Q} and E=S𝔽 pE = S \mathbb{F}_p the Moore spectra of \mathbb{Q} and of the cyclic group/finite field 𝔽 p=/(p)\mathbb{F}_p = \mathbb{Z}/(p), respectively (e.g. Lurie 10, lecture 20).

Including this into the statement of prop. says that for spectra XX satisfying sufficient conditions as above, then the canonical diagram

X G S(/)(X) ( pX p ) X pX p G H(X) \array{ && X_{\mathbb{Q}} && \longleftarrow && G_{S (\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z})}(X) \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ (\prod_p X_p^\wedge)_{\mathbb{Q}} && && X \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ && \prod_p X_p^\wedge && \longleftarrow && G_{H\mathbb{Q}}(X) }

is homotopy exact, in that

  1. the square is a homotopy pullback and hence also a homotopy pushout (this is prop. );

  2. the diagonals are homotopy cofiber sequences and hence also homotopy fiber sequences (by this proposition at Bousfield localization of spectra);

  3. the top and bottom outer composite sequences are homotopy fiber sequences (and hence homotopy cofiber sequences) (by applying the pasting law to the previous two items).

Together this is like two-thirds of a differential cohomology hexagon – to the extent that pp-adic completion is adjoint to pp-torsion approximation. This is indeed the case, as the next proposition asserts

Notice that in view of remark then X p X_p^\wedge is like the restriction of XX from Spec(Z) to all formal disks around the points (p)(p), and hence G S𝔽 pG_{S\mathbb{F}_p} is like the restriction to the “complement of all formal disks”. Finally X X_{\mathbb{Q}} may be understood as the restriction to the Ran space of Spec()Spec(\mathbb{Z}) (Gaitsgory 11), roughly the colimit of the restriction of XX to the complement of finitely many points, as this set of points ranges through all points.

In view of remark we may regard the following fact as an refinement of the traditional arithmetic fracture theorem.


Let AA be an E-∞ ring and let 𝔞π 0A\mathfrak{a} \subset \pi_0 A be a finitely generated ideal in its underlying commutative ring.

Then there is an adjoint triple of adjoint (∞,1)-functors

AMod 𝔞comp opAMod 𝔞tors op 𝔞Π 𝔞 AMod op \array{ \underoverset{ A Mod_{\mathfrak{a}comp}^{op}} {A Mod_{\mathfrak{a}tors}^{op}} {\simeq} &\stackrel{\overset{\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}}}{\longleftarrow}}{\stackrel{\hookrightarrow}{\underset{\flat_{\mathfrak{a}}}{\longleftarrow}}}& A Mod^{op} }



This is effectively the content of (Lurie “Proper morphisms”, section 4):

  • the existence of Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} is corollary 4.1.16 and remark 4.1.17

  • the existence of 𝔞\flat_{\mathfrak{a}} is lemma 4.2.2 there;

  • the equivalence of sub-\infty-categories is proposition 4.2.5 there.


The traditional arithmetic fracture square of prop. , regarded as in remark , is the left part of the “differential cohomology diagram” induced by the adjoint modality (Π 𝔞 𝔞)(\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \dashv \flat_{\mathfrak{a}} ) of prop. , for the special case that X=𝕊X = \mathbb{S} is the sphere spectrum and 𝔞=(p)\mathfrak{a} = (p) a prime ideal

Π 𝔞dRX d 𝔞dRX Π 𝔞dRX X Π 𝔞 𝔞dRX 𝔞X Π 𝔞X, \array{ && \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}dR} X && \stackrel{\mathbf{d}}{\longrightarrow} && \flat_{\mathfrak{a}dR} X \\ & \nearrow & & \searrow & & \nearrow && \searrow \\ \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}dR} \flat X && \Downarrow && X && \Downarrow && \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \flat_{\mathfrak{a}dR} X \\ & \searrow & & \nearrow & & \searrow && \nearrow \\ && \flat_{\mathfrak{a}} X && \longrightarrow && \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} X } \,,

cohesion in E-∞ arithmetic geometry:

cohesion modalitysymbolinterpretation
flat modality\flatformal completion at
shape modalityʃʃtorsion approximation
dR-shape modalityʃ dRʃ_{dR}localization away
dR-flat modality dR\flat_{dR}adic residual

the differential cohomology hexagon/arithmetic fracture squares:

localizationawayfrom𝔞 𝔞adicresidual Π 𝔞dR 𝔞X X Π 𝔞 𝔞dRX formalcompletionat𝔞 𝔞torsionapproximation, \array{ && localization\;away\;from\;\mathfrak{a} && \stackrel{}{\longrightarrow} && \mathfrak{a}\;adic\;residual \\ & \nearrow & & \searrow & & \nearrow && \searrow \\ \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}dR} \flat_{\mathfrak{a}} X && && X && && \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \flat_{\mathfrak{a}dR} X \\ & \searrow & & \nearrow & & \searrow && \nearrow \\ && formal\;completion\;at\;\mathfrak{a}\; && \longrightarrow && \mathfrak{a}\;torsion\;approximation } \,,

The special case of prop. where AA is the Eilenberg-MacLane spectrum of a plain commutative ring, and hence – by the stable Dold-Kan correspondence – the case where AA-∞-modules are equivalently chain complexes, has a longer tradition in the existing literature. This we highlight separately below.


By the discussion at completion of modules in the section Monoidalness, the adjoint modality of prop. is a monoidal (∞,1)-functor without, possibly, respect the tensor unit in AModA Mod. This means that (Π 𝔞 𝔞)(\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}}\dashv \flat_{\mathfrak{a}}) passes to “commutative ∞-monoids-without unit” in AModA Mod, hence to (formal duals of) nonunital E-∞ algebras. By this proposition (Lurie “Algebra”, prop. nonunital E-∞ rings are equivalent to augmented E-∞ rings over the sphere spectrum, hence this is E-∞ arithmetic geometry under Spec(𝕊)Spec(\mathbb{S}).

Notice that in addition Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} here should preserve finite products (because by the discussion at completion of a module – monoidalness the underlying Π 𝔞:AModAMod\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \colon A Mod \to A Mod preserves all small (∞,1)-colimits and because by this proposition finite coproducts in CRng(AMod)CRng(A Mod) are computed in the underlying AModA Mod.

Therefore we may think of Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} as a shape modality and of 𝔞\flat_{\mathfrak{a}} as a sharp modality on affine E-∞-arithmetic geometry under Spec(𝕊)Spec(\mathbb{S}) – namely on formal duals of nonunital E-∞ rings .

(It may be entertaining to note that on the level of ∞-groups of units then E-∞ arithmetic geometry under Spec(𝕊)Spec(\mathbb{S}) translates to abelian ∞-groups of twists over the sphere spectrum – which has been argued to be the homotopy-theoretic incarnation of superalgebra, see at superalgebra – abstract idea for more on this.)

For more discussion of this see also differential cohesion and idelic structure.

The arithmetic fracture square for chain complexes

We discuss here arithmetic fracturing on chain complexes of modules. Under the stable Dold-Kan correspondence this is a special case of prop. , but this special case has a longer tradition in the literature – going back to Grothendieck local duality and sometimes called Greenlees-May duality due to (Greenlees-May 92) – and we point to these original proofs.


Let AA be a commutative ring, let 𝔞A\mathfrak{a} \subset A be be an ideal generated by a single regular element (i.e. not a zero divisor). Write AMod opA Mod_{\infty}^{op} for the opposite (∞,1)-category of the (∞,1)-category of modules over AA.


  • 𝔞:AMod opAMod op\flat_{\mathfrak{a}}\colon A Mod_\infty^{op} \to A Mod_{\infty}^{op} for the derived functor of formal completion (adic completion) of modules at 𝔞\mathfrak{a};

    with canonical natural transformation

    ϵ 𝔞: 𝔞id\epsilon_{\mathfrak{a}} \colon \flat_{\mathfrak{a}} \longrightarrow id

  • Π 𝔞:AMod opAMod op\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \colon A Mod_\infty^{op} \to A Mod_\infty^{op} for the total derived functor of the 𝔞\mathfrak{a}-torsion approximation-functor;

    with canonical natural transformation

    η 𝔞:idΠ 𝔞\eta_{\mathfrak{a}}\colon id \longrightarrow \Pi_{\mathfrak{a}}

Finally write

(AMod op) 𝔞com,(AMod op) 𝔞torAMod (A Mod_\infty^{op})^{\mathfrak{a}com}, (A Mod_\infty^{op})^{\mathfrak{a}tor} \hookrightarrow A Mod_\infty

for the full (∞,1)-subcategories of objects XX for which, ϵ 𝔞(X)\epsilon_{\mathfrak{a}}(X) or η 𝔞(X)\eta_{\mathfrak{a}}(X) is an equivalence in an (∞,1)-category, respectively.

  1. The transformation ϵ 𝔞\epsilon_{\mathfrak{a}} exhibits (AMod op) 𝔞comAMod (A Mod_\infty^{op})^{\mathfrak{a}com}\hookrightarrow A Mod_\infty as a reflective (∞,1)-subcategory, hence 𝔞\flat_{\mathfrak{a}} as an idempotent (∞,1)-monad.

  2. The transformation η 𝔞\eta_{\mathfrak{a}} exhibits (AMod op) 𝔞torAMod (A Mod_\infty^{op})^{\mathfrak{a}tor}\hookrightarrow A Mod_\infty as a co-reflective (,1)(\infty,1)-category, hence Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} as an idempotent (,1)(\infty,1)-comonad.

  3. Restricted to these sub-(,1)(\infty,1)-categories both 𝔞\flat_{\mathfrak{a}} as well as Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} become equivalences of (∞,1)-categories, hence exhibiting (Π 𝔞 𝔞)(\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} \dashv \flat_{\mathfrak{a}}) as a higher adjoint modality.


This is a paraphrase of the results in (Dwyer-Greenlees 99) and (Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10) from the language of derived categories to (∞,1)-category theory.

First of all, by our simplifying assumption that 𝔞\mathfrak{a} is generated by a single regular element, the running assumption of “weak proregularity” in (Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10, def.3.21) is satisfied.

Then in view of (Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10, corollary 3.31) the statement of (Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10, theorem 6.12) is the characterization of reflectors-category#CharacterizationOfReflectors) as discussed at reflective sub-(∞,1)-category, and formally dually so for the coreflection. With the fully faithfulness that goes with this the equivalence of the two inclusions on the level of homotopy categories given by (Hovey-PalieriS-trickland 97, 3.3.5, Dwyer-Greenlees 99, theorem 2.1 Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10, theorem 6.11) implies the canonical equivalence of the two sub-(∞,1)-categories and this means that Π 𝔞\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}} and 𝔞\flat_{\mathfrak{a}} are the adjoint pair induced from the reflection/coreflection adjoint triple.

This adjoint triple is stated more explicitly in (Dwyer-Greenlees 99, section 4), see also (Porta-Shaul-Yekutieli 10, end of remark 6.14).

Therefore arithmetic fracture squares in the homotopy theory of chain complexes are induced by this as in corollary above.

General fracture squares of spectra

By prop. the arithmetic fracture square of prop. is equivalently of the form

L HX L HL S/X X L S/X. \array{ && L_{H\mathbb{Q}}X \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ L_{H\mathbb{Q}} L_{S \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}} X && && X \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && L_{S \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}} X } \,.

In this form the statement holds much more generally:


Let E,F,XE, F, X be spectra such that the FF-localization of XX is EE-acyclic, i.e. E (L FX)0E_\bullet(L_F X) \simeq 0, then the canonical square diagram

L FX L FL EX L EFX L EX \array{ && L_F X \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ L_F L_E X && && L_{E\vee F} X \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && L_E X }

is a homotopy pullback (and hence by stability also a homotopy pushout).

e.g. (Bauer 11, prop. 2.2)


The general version of the fracture statement in prop. is used frequently in chromatic homotopy theory for decomposition in Morava K-theory and Morava E-theory-localizations. For example there is a chromatic fracture square:

L E(n1)X L E(n1)L K(n)X L E(n)X L K(n)X \array{ && L_{E(n-1)} X \\ & \swarrow && \nwarrow \\ L_{E(n-1)} L_{K(n)} X && && L_{E(n)} X \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && L_{K(n)} X }

In particular it is used for instance in the construction of tmf, see example below.

From another perspective:


Suppose that L:SpectraSpectraL \colon Spectra \to Spectra is a smashing localization given by smash product with some spectrum TT. Write FF for the homotopy fiber

F𝕊T. F \longrightarrow \mathbb{S} \longrightarrow T \,.

Then there is a fracture diagram of operations

T() [T,] 𝕊 [F,] F() \array{ T \wedge (-) && \longleftarrow && [T,-] \\ & \nwarrow && \swarrow \\ && \mathbb{S} \\ & \swarrow & & \nwarrow \\ [F,-] && \longleftarrow && F \wedge (-) }

where [F,][F,-] and T():SpectraSpectraT \wedge (-) \colon Spectra \to Spectra are idempotent (∞,1)-monads and [T,][T,-], F()F \wedge (-) are idempotent \infty-comonads, the diagonals are homotopy fiber sequences.

(Charles Rezk, MO comment,August 2014)


For T=S[p 1]T = S \mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}] the Moore spectrum of the integers localized away from pp, then

F=Σ 1S([p 1]/)𝕊S[p 1] F = \Sigma^{-1} S (\mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}]/\mathbb{Z}) \to \mathbb{S} \to S \mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}]

and hence

  • Σ 1S([p 1]/)()\Sigma^{-1} S (\mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}]/\mathbb{Z}) \wedge (-) is pp-torsion approximation;

  • [Σ 1S([p 1]/),][\Sigma^{-1} S (\mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}]/\mathbb{Z}),-] is pp-completion;

  • S[p 1]()S \mathbb{Z}[p^{-1}] \wedge (-) is pp-rationalization;

  • [T,][T,-] is forming pp-adic residual.

localizationawayfrom𝔞 𝔞adicresidual X formalcompletionat𝔞 𝔞torsionapproximation, \array{ && localization\;away\;from\;\mathfrak{a} && \stackrel{}{\longrightarrow} && \mathfrak{a}\;adic\;residual \\ & \nearrow & & \searrow & & \nearrow && \searrow \\ && && X && && \\ & \searrow & & \nearrow & & \searrow && \nearrow \\ && formal\;completion\;at\;\mathfrak{a}\; && \longrightarrow && \mathfrak{a}\;torsion\;approximation } \,,

With (Bousfield 79, prop.2.5)

For E E_\infty-modules


Let AA be an E-∞ ring and let 𝔞π 0A\mathfrak{a} \subset \pi_0 A be a finitely generated ideal in its underlying commutative ring.

Then there is an adjoint triple of adjoint (∞,1)-functors

AMod 𝔞comp opAMod 𝔞tors op 𝔞Π 𝔞 AMod op \array{ \underoverset{ A Mod_{\mathfrak{a}comp}^{op}} {A Mod_{\mathfrak{a}tors}^{op}} {\simeq} &\stackrel{\overset{\Pi_{\mathfrak{a}}}{\longleftarrow}}{\stackrel{\hookrightarrow}{\underset{\flat_{\mathfrak{a}}}{\longleftarrow}}}& A Mod^{op} }


This is effectively the content of (Lurie “Completions”, section 4):

In cohesive (stable) homotopy theory

In cohesive homotopy theory every stable homotopy type XX sits in a fracture square of the form

Π dRX dRX Π dRX X X ΠX \array{ && \Pi_{dR} X && \longrightarrow && \flat_{dR} X \\ & \nearrow & & \searrow && \nearrow \\ \Pi_{dR} \flat X && && X \\ & \searrow & & \nearrow && \searrow \\ && \flat X && \longrightarrow && \Pi X }

where \flat is the flat modality and Π dR\Pi_{dR} the homotopy fiber of the unit XΠXX\to \Pi X of the shape modality. This is the left part of the differential cohomology hexagon for XX, see there for details.

Here Π dRX\Pi_{dR} X is such that for any other stable cohesive homotopy type E^\hat E then functions Π dRXE^\Pi_{dR} X \to \hat E are equivalent to functions X dRE^X \to \flat_{dR} \hat E, where E^ dRE^\hat E \to \flat_{dR} \hat E is a generalized form of rationalization in the sense discussed at differential cohomology hexagon. In particular if E^\hat E is a Hopkins-Singer-type differential cohomology refinement of a plain spectrum EE, then E dREE\to \flat_{dR} E is its ordinary rationalization given by the Chern character and E^ dRE^\hat E \to \flat_{dR} \hat E is the corresponding map on Chern curvature forms.

Moreover, if the ambient cohesion is differential cohesion over a base of infinitesimal cohesion, then the flat modality \flat takes any space XX to the union of all its formal disks. (See at differential cohesion and idelic structure.) Accordingly the collection of functions XE^\flat X \to \hat E in this case behave like the product of all formal power series of E^\hat E-valued functions around all global points of XX, analogous to remark .

An example of this are synthetic differential ∞-groupoids regarded as cohesive over their formal moduli problems, as its its complex analytic incarnation by synthetic differential complex analytic ∞-groupoids. In this context if X=ΣX = \Sigma is a complex curve then Σ\flat \Sigma is precisely the analog of the integral adeles as it is predicted by the function field analogy.



The construction of the tmf-spectrum – the spectrum of global sections of the derived Deligne-Mumford stack of derived elliptic curves – as described in (Behrens 13) proceeds by first applying the arithmetic fracture square of prop. , prop. to decompose the moduli stack of elliptic curves into rational and pp-adic curves, and then in a second step in applying in turn the general fracture square of prop. for Morava K-theory to the remaining pp-adic pieces.

See at tmf – Decomposition via arithmetic fracture squares for more on this.


Related MO-discussion:

Discussion of rational functions as functions on the Ran space is in

Discussion of 𝔞\mathfrak{a}-adic completion and 𝔞\mathfrak{a}-torsion approximation as derived idempotent (co-)monads on a derived category of chain complexes of modules – Greenlees-May duality – is in

building on

Discussion of this in stable homotopy theory and the full generality of higher algebra is in

And in the context of commutative DG-rings in

This and further generalization is in

Discussion in homotopy type theory:

  • Luis Scoccola, Nilpotent Types and Fracture Squares in Homotopy Type Theory (arXiv:1903.03245)

Exposition from the point of view of modal homotopy theory:

Formalization in cohesive modal homotopy type theory homotopy type theory:

See also

Last revised on March 24, 2023 at 18:25:39. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.