A Euclidean domain is an integral domain which admits a form of the Euclidean quotient-and-remainder algorithm familiar from school mathematics.
A Euclidean domain is an integral domain $A$ for which there exists a function $d: A \setminus \{0\} \to \mathbb{N}$ to the natural numbers, often called a degree function, such that given $f, g \in A$ with $g \neq 0$, there exists unique $q, r \in A$ such that $f = q \cdot g + r$ and either $r = 0$ or $d(r) \lt d(g)$. (One may harmlessly stipulate that $d(0) = 0$; what to do with the zero element varies from author to author.)
Some authors also add the requirement that $d(a) \leq d(a b)$ for all nonzero $a, b$. There is no loss of generality in assuming it; every Euclidean domain admits such a degree function $d'$, defining $d'(a) = \min \{d(a b): b \in A, b \neq 0\}$. We’ll use it freely below, if and when we need to.
The (rational) integers $\mathbb{Z}$.
The ring of polynomials $k[x]$ over a field $k$, using the ordinary polynomial degree.
Any field (trivially).
Any discrete valuation ring: letting $\pi$ be a generator of the maximal ideal, put $d(x) = n$ where $x = u \pi^n$, with $u$ a unit.
The Gaussian integers $\mathbb{Z}[i]$, with $d(a + b i) = a^2 + b^2$ (the norm).
The Eisenstein integers? $\mathbb{Z}[\omega]$, where $\omega$ is a primitive cube root of unity, with $d(a + b \omega) = a^2 - a b + b^2$ (the norm).
A Euclidean domain is a principal ideal domain.
Let $I \subseteq A$ be a nonzero ideal, and suppose $d(g)$ is the minimum degree taken over all nonzero $g \in I$. For such a $g$ and any $f \in I$, we may write $f = q g + r$ where either $r = 0$ or $d(r) \lt d(g)$ (which is impossible since $r \in I$ and $d(g)$ is minimal). So $r = 0$ it is, and thus $I = (g)$.
Last revised on July 4, 2015 at 16:53:38. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.