synthetic differential geometry
Introductions
from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds
geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry
Differentials
Tangency
The magic algebraic facts
Theorems
Axiomatics
(shape modality $\dashv$ flat modality $\dashv$ sharp modality)
$(ʃ \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )$
dR-shape modality $\dashv$ dR-flat modality
$ʃ_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}$
(reduction modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal shape modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal flat modality)
$(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)$
fermionic modality $\dashv$ bosonic modality $\dashv$ rheonomy modality
$(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)$
Models
Models for Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
smooth algebra ($C^\infty$-ring)
differential equations, variational calculus
Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory
Cartan geometry (super, higher)
The motivating idea of the derivative in differential calculus is that it is approximated by a ratio of differences. We may also say that an instantaneous rate of change is approximated by an average rate of change. The Mean Value Theorem reverses this, and says that any average rate of change is equal to some instantaneous rate of change, if certain differentiability conditions are met.
The name comes from the fact that, due to the fundamental theorem of calculus, an average rate of change over an interval may be viewed as an average (or mean) of the instantaneous rates of change along the interval. Thus, the theorem states that the mean value of the derivative on an interval is attained somewhere in that interval.
There are traditionally three versions of increasing generality, although even the most general version is implicit in the most specific version (requiring only a linear coordinate transformation).
Suppose that $a \lt b$ are real numbers and $f$ is a continuous real-valued function on $[a,b]$. If $f$ is differentiable on the interior $]{a,b}[$, and if $f(a) = f(b)$, then for some $c \in {]{a,b}[}$,
Suppose that $a \lt b$ are real numbers and $f$ is a continuous real-valued function on $[a,b]$. If $f$ is differentiable on the interior $]{a,b}[$, then for some $c \in {]{a,b}[}$,
or equivalently
Suppose that $a \lt b$ are real numbers and $f$ and $g$ are continuous real-valued functions on $[a,b]$. If $f$ and $g$ are differentiable on the interior $]{a,b}[$, then for some $c \in {]{a,b}[}$,
assuming that $f'$ and $g'$ are never simultaneously zero in $]{a,b}[$ and that $(f(a),g(a)) \neq (f(b),g(b))$, then for some $c \in {]{a,b}[}$,
where either side of this equation is allowed to be interpreted as $\infty$ in case it is division by zero (necessarily with a nonzero dividend under these conditions); or perhaps better, an equality of ratios:
If we write $u$ for $f(x)$ and $v$ for $g(x)$, then this last version states that
Compare this to the definition
(although this is really only a definition when $v$ is $x$, which reduces Cauchy's theorem to Lagrange's).
Rolle's theorem is usually called just ‘Rolle's’ theorem, being the only result attributed today to Michel Rolle?; but Lagrange's and Cauchy's theorems must be called ‘mean value’ theorems, as Joseph-Louis Lagrange? and Augustin-Louis Cauchy did far more. By default, the term ‘Mean Value Theorem’ usually refers to Lagrange's theorem. (But neither Rolle nor Lagrange proved their theorem in the general case; the first proofs of all of them are due to Cauchy in 1823, a decade after Lagrange's death and more than a century after Rolle's death.)
Wikipedia, Mean value theorem
nForum discussion of constructive versions