mean value theorem

The Mean Value Theorem


Differential geometry

synthetic differential geometry


from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds

geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry



smooth space


The magic algebraic facts




  • (shape modality \dashv flat modality \dashv sharp modality)

    (ʃ)(ʃ \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )

  • dR-shape modality\dashv dR-flat modality

    ʃ dR dRʃ_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}

  • tangent cohesion

    • differential cohomology diagram
    • differential cohesion

      • (reduction modality \dashv infinitesimal shape modality \dashv infinitesimal flat modality)

        (&)(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)

      • graded differential cohesion

        • fermionic modality\dashv bosonic modality \dashv rheonomy modality

          (Rh)(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)

        • id id fermionic bosonic bosonic Rh rheonomic reduced infinitesimal infinitesimal & étale cohesive ʃ discrete discrete continuous *

          \array{ && id &\dashv& id \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{fermionic}{}& \rightrightarrows &\dashv& \rightsquigarrow & \stackrel{bosonic}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{bosonic}{} & \rightsquigarrow &\dashv& Rh & \stackrel{rheonomic}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{reduced}{} & \Re &\dashv& \Im & \stackrel{infinitesimal}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{infinitesimal}{}& \Im &\dashv& \& & \stackrel{\text{étale}}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{cohesive}{}& ʃ &\dashv& \flat & \stackrel{discrete}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{discrete}{}& \flat &\dashv& \sharp & \stackrel{continuous}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ && \emptyset &\dashv& \ast }



          Lie theory, ∞-Lie theory

          differential equations, variational calculus

          Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory

          Cartan geometry (super, higher)

          The Mean Value Theorem


          The motivating idea of the derivative in differential calculus is that it is approximated by a ratio of differences. We may also say that an instantaneous rate of change is approximated by an average rate of change. The Mean Value Theorem reverses this, and says that any average rate of change is equal to some instantaneous rate of change, if certain differentiability conditions are met.

          The name comes from the fact that, due to the fundamental theorem of calculus, an average rate of change over an interval may be viewed as an average (or mean) of the instantaneous rates of change along the interval. Thus, the theorem states that the mean value of the derivative on an interval is attained somewhere in that interval.


          There are traditionally three versions of increasing generality, although even the most general version is implicit in the most specific version (requiring only a linear coordinate transformation).

          Rolle's Theorem

          Suppose that a<ba \lt b are real numbers and ff is a continuous real-valued function on [a,b][a,b]. If ff is differentiable on the interior ]a,b[]{a,b}[, and if f(a)=f(b)f(a) = f(b), then for some c]a,b[c \in {]{a,b}[},

          f(c)=0. f'(c) = 0 .
          Lagrange's Theorem

          Suppose that a<ba \lt b are real numbers and ff is a continuous real-valued function on [a,b][a,b]. If ff is differentiable on the interior ]a,b[]{a,b}[, then for some c]a,b[c \in {]{a,b}[},

          f(c)=f(b)f(a)ba, f'(c) = \frac {f(b) - f(a)} {b - a} ,

          or equivalently

          f(c)(ba)=f(b)f(a). f'(c) (b - a) = f(b) - f(a) .
          Cauchy's Theorem

          Suppose that a<ba \lt b are real numbers and ff and gg are continuous real-valued functions on [a,b][a,b]. If ff and gg are differentiable on the interior ]a,b[]{a,b}[, then for some c]a,b[c \in {]{a,b}[},

          f(c)(g(b)g(a))=g(c)(f(b)f(a)); f'(c) (g(b) - g(a)) = g'(c) (f(b) - f(a)) ;

          assuming that ff' and gg' are never simultaneously zero in ]a,b[]{a,b}[ and that (f(a),g(a))(f(b),g(b))(f(a),g(a)) \neq (f(b),g(b)), then for some c]a,b[c \in {]{a,b}[},

          f(c)g(c)=f(b)f(a)g(b)g(a), \frac {f'(c)} {g'(c)} = \frac {f(b) - f(a)} {g(b) - g(a)} ,

          where either side of this equation is allowed to be interpreted as \infty in case it is division by zero (necessarily with a nonzero dividend under these conditions); or perhaps better, an equality of ratios:

          f(c):g(c)::f(b)f(a):g(b)g(a). f'(c) : g'(c) :: f(b) - f(a) : g(b) - g(a) .

          If we write uu for f(x)f(x) and vv for g(x)g(x), then this last version states that

          dudv| x=c=ΔuΔv| x=a b. \left.{\frac{\mathrm{d}u}{\mathrm{d}v}}\right|_{x=c} = \left.{\frac{\Delta{u}}{\Delta{v}}}\right|_{x=a}^b .

          Compare this to the definition

          dudv| x=alim baΔuΔv| x=a b \left.{\frac{\mathrm{d}u}{\mathrm{d}v}}\right|_{x=a} \coloneqq \lim_{b\to{a}} \left.{\frac{\Delta{u}}{\Delta{v}}}\right|_{x=a}^b

          (although this is really only a definition when vv is xx, which reduces Cauchy's theorem to Lagrange's).


          Rolle's theorem is usually called just ‘Rolle's’ theorem, being the only result attributed today to Michel Rolle?; but Lagrange's and Cauchy's theorems must be called ‘mean value’ theorems, as Joseph-Louis Lagrange? and Augustin-Louis Cauchy did far more. By default, the term ‘Mean Value Theorem’ usually refers to Lagrange's theorem. (But neither Rolle nor Lagrange proved their theorem in the general case; the first proofs of all of them are due to Cauchy in 1823, a decade after Lagrange's death and more than a century after Rolle's death.)

          Last revised on November 17, 2016 at 09:24:20. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.