synthetic differential geometry
Introductions
from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds
geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry
Differentials
Tangency
The magic algebraic facts
Theorems
Axiomatics
(shape modality $\dashv$ flat modality $\dashv$ sharp modality)
$(ʃ \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )$
dR-shape modality $\dashv$ dR-flat modality
$ʃ_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}$
(reduction modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal shape modality $\dashv$ infinitesimal flat modality)
$(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)$
fermionic modality $\dashv$ bosonic modality $\dashv$ rheonomy modality
$(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)$
Models
Models for Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
smooth algebra ($C^\infty$-ring)
differential equations, variational calculus
Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory
Cartan geometry (super, higher)
A Frölicher space is one flavour of a generalized smooth space.
Frölicher smooth spaces are determined by a rule for
how to map the real line smoothly into it,
and how to map out of the space smoothly to the real line.
In the general context of space and quantity, Frölicher spaces take an intermediate symmetric position: they are both presheaves as well as copresheaves on their test domain (which here is the full subcategory of manifolds on the real line) and both of these structures determine each other.
The general abstract idea behind this is described at Isbell envelope.
The intention for these pages is to develop the basic tools of differential topology for Frölicher spaces. This means taking the basic pieces of “ordinary” differential topology and considering what they might look like for Frölicher spaces; including what looks the same and what looks different.
This project will both record existing structure and develop new ideas. It is intentionally in the main area of the $n$-Lab to encourage contributions.
A Frölicher Space is a triple $(X,C_X,F_X)$ where
subject to the following saturation conditions
A morphism of Frölicher spaces, say $(X,C_X,F_X) \to (Y,C_Y,F_Y)$ is a set map $g : X \to Y$ satisfying the following (equivalent) conditions:
Frölicher spaces and their morphisms form a category with an obvious faithful functor to the category of sets. The properties of this category are as follows.
The category of Frölicher spaces is complete, cocomplete, and cartesian closed. It is topological over $Set$. It is an amnestic, transportable construct.
To its eternal shame, the category of Frölicher spaces is not locally cartesian closed.
The notion goes back to Alfred Frölicher.
A detailed discussion of the category of Frölicher spaces and their relation to other notions of generalized smooth spaces is given in
This also lists all the relevant further references.
A discussion of Lie algebras on Frölicher groups (group objects internal to the category of Frölicher spaces) is in
See also the unpublished thesis of Andreas Cap:
Discussion in the context of applications to continuum mechanics is in