Contents

Contents

Idea

The Jordan curve theorem is a basic fact in topology. It stands out as having a statement that intuitively seems completely obvious, but which turns out to require a non-trivial formal proof.

The theorem states that every continuous loop (where a loop is a closed curve) in the Euclidean plane which does not intersect itself (a Jordan curve) divides the plane into two disjoint subsets (the connected components of the curve's complement), a bounded region inside the curve, and an unbounded region outside of it, each of which has the original curve as its boundary.

In constructive mathematics

Given a notion of real number $\mathbb{R}$ in constructive mathematics, a Jordan curve consists of a set $J$ with a specific injection $i:J \to \mathbb{R}^2$ into the Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^2$, and a homeomorphism $h:\mathbb{S}^1 \to \mathrm{im}(i)$ from the topological unit circle $\mathbb{S}^1$ to the image of the subset injection.

section under construction

In constructive mathematics, the Jordan curve theorem is stated as

Theorem

Given a Jordan curve $J$, two points $a$ and $b$ can be constructed off of $J$, such that given any point $c$ off of $J$, we can construct a polygonal path that is bounded away from $J$, and that joins $c$ to one of $a$ or $b$, and any polygonal path joining $a$ and $b$ comes arbitrarily close to $J$.

Generalization

The Jordan–Brouwer separation theorem states that, in the Cartesian space $\mathbb{R}^n$, every simple closed continuous hypersurface (defined as the image of a continuous injection from the sphere $S^{n-1}$) has an exterior with two connected components, one bounded (the inside of the hypersurface) and one unbounded, each of which has the original hypersurface as its boundary. (Furthermore, the continuous map defining the hypersurface can be extended to an auto-homeomorphism of $\mathbb{R}^n$ under which the inside and outside appear as the images of the inside and outside of the sphere.)

References

Last revised on October 21, 2022 at 22:30:30. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.