This entry is about the concept in topology. For variants see at proper morphism.
see also algebraic topology, functional analysis and homotopy theory
topological space (see also locale)
fiber space, space attachment
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
subsets are closed in a closed subspace precisely if they are closed in the ambient space
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
Theorems
A continuous function $f \colon (X, \tau_X) \to (Y, \tau_Y)$ is called proper if for $C \in Y$ a compact topological subspace of $Y$, then also its pre-image $f^{-1}(C)$ is compact in $X$.
(maps from compact spaces to Hausdorff spaces are closed and proper)
Let $f \colon (X, \tau_X) \longrightarrow (Y, \tau_Y)$ be a continuous function between topological spaces such that
$(X,\tau_X)$ is a compact topological space;
$(Y,\tau_Y)$ is a Hausdorff topological space.
Then $f$ is
a closed map;
a proper map (def. 1))
(locally compact topological space)
A topological space $X$ is called locally compact if for every point $x \in X$ and every open neighbourhood $U_x \supset \{x\}$ there exists a smaller open neighbourhood $V_x \subset U_x$ whose topological closure is compact (def. \ref{CompactTopologicalSpace}) and still contained in $U$:
(proper maps to locally compact spaces are closed)
Let
$(X,\tau_X)$ be a topological space,
$(Y,\tau_Y)$ a locally compact topological space according to def. 2,
$f \colon X \to Y$ a continuous function.
Then:
If $f$ is a proper map (def. 1), then it is a closed map.