nLab axiom K (type theory)

Contents

This entry is about the axiom K in type theory. For axiom K of modal logic, see axiom K (modal logic).

Contents

Idea

In type theory, the axiom K is an axiom that when added to intensional type theory turns it into extensional type theory — or more precisely, what is called here “propositionally extensional type theory”. In the language of homotopy type theory, this means that all types are h-sets, accordingly axiom K is incompatible with the univalence axiom.

Heuristically, the axiom asserts that each term of each identity type $Id_A(x,x)$ (of equivalences of a term $x \colon A$) is propositionally equal to the canonical reflexivity equality proof $refl_x \colon Id_A(x,x)$.

Axiom K can also be called loop induction or self-identification induction in parallel to path induction.

Statement

$K \colon \underset{A \colon Type}{\prod} \underset{x \colon A}{\prod} \underset{P \colon Id_A(x,x) \to Type}{\prod} \left( P(refl_A x) \to \underset{h \colon Id_A(x,x)}{\prod} P(h) \right)$

If one doesn’t have type universes in the type theory, then axiom K has to be expressed as an inference rule, and thus is called the K-rule:

$\frac{\Gamma \vdash A \; \mathrm{type} \quad \Gamma, x:A, p:\mathrm{Id}_A(x,x) \vdash P(x, p) \; \mathrm{type}}{\Gamma \vdash K_A:\prod_{x:A} P(x, \mathrm{refl}_A(x)) \to \prod_{h:\mathrm{Id}_A(x,x)} P(x, h)}$

Using the circle type

One can, instead of using elements $x:A$ and self identifications $p:\mathrm{Id}_A(x,x)$, use a function $p:S^1 \to A$ from the circle type $S^1$ to express axiom K:

$K^{\prime} \colon \underset{A \colon Type}{\prod} \underset{x \colon A}{\prod} \underset{P \colon (S^1 \to A) \to Type}{\prod} \left( P(\lambda i:S^1.x) \to \underset{p:S^1 \to A}{\prod} P(p) \right)$

This states that the function type $S^1 \to A$ is a positive copy of $A$, and is equivalent to the other formulation of axiom K through the recursion principle of the circle type.

If one doesn’t have type universes in the type theory, then axiom K has to be expressed as an inference rule:

$\frac{\Gamma \vdash A \; \mathrm{type} \quad \Gamma, p:S^1 \to A \vdash P(p) \; \mathrm{type}}{\Gamma \vdash K_A^{\prime}:\prod_{x:A} P(\lambda i:S^1.x) \to \prod_{p:S^1 \to A} P(p)}$

Properties

Relation to $S^1$-localization

The negative analogue of axiom K is the axiom of $S^1$-localization, which states that

$\mathrm{const}_{A, S^1} \equiv \lambda x:A.\lambda i:S^1.x:A \to (S^1 \to A)$

is an equivalence of types or a definitional isomorphism.

Theorem

Suppose that every type $A$ is definitionally $S^1$-local.

Then $S^1 \to A$ is a positive copy of $A$: given any type $A$, and any type family $C(p)$ indexed by loops $p:S^1 \to A$ in $A$, and given any dependent function $t:\prod_{x:A} C(\lambda i:S^1.x)$ which says that for all elements $x:A$, there is an element of the type defined by substituting the constant loop of $x:A$ into $C$, $C(\lambda i:S^1.x)$, one can construct a dependent function $K_A(t):\prod_{z:S^1 \to A} C(z)$ such that for all $x:A$, $K_A(t, \lambda i:S^1.x) \equiv t(x):C(\lambda i:S^1.x)$.

Proof

$K_A(t)$ is defined to be

$K_A(t) \equiv \lambda p:S^1 \to A.t(\mathrm{const}_{A, S^1}^{-1}(p))$

and by the computation rules of loop types as negative copies, one has that for all $x:A$,

$\mathrm{const}_{A, S^1}^{-1}(\lambda i:\mathbb{I}.x) \equiv x$

and so by definition of $\mathrm{ind}_{S^1 \to A}(t)$ and the judgmental congruence rules for substitution, one has

$K_A(t, \lambda i:S^1.x) \equiv t(\mathrm{const}_{A, S^1}^{-1}(\lambda i:S^1.x)) \equiv t(x)$

Theorem

Suppose that for all types $A$, $S^1 \to A$ is a positive copy of $A$ through the function

$\mathrm{const}_{A, S^1} \equiv \lambda x:A.\lambda i:S^1.x:A \to (S^1 \to A)$

Then Streicher’s axiom K is true: given a type $A$ and given a type family $C(x, P)$ indexed by $x:A$ and $p:x =_A X$, and a dependent function $t:\prod_{x:A} C(x, \mathrm{refl}_A(x))$, one can construct a dependent function

$K_A(t):\prod_{x:A} \prod_{p:x =_A X} C(x, p)$

such that for all $x:A$,

$K_A(t, x, \mathrm{refl}_A(x)) \equiv t(x)$

Proof

By the induction principle of positive copies on the type family $C(f(\mathrm{base}), \mathrm{ap}_f(\mathrm{loop}))$ indexed by $f:S^1 \to A$, we can construct a dependent function

$K_A^{\prime}(t):\prod_{f:\mathbb{I} \to A} C(f(\mathrm{base}), \mathrm{ap}_f(\mathrm{loop}))$

such that for all $x:A$,

$K_A^{\prime}(t, \lambda i:S^1.x) \equiv t(x):C(x, \mathrm{refl}_A(x))$

since by definition of constant function and reflexivity, one has

$(\lambda i:\mathbb{I}.x)(\mathrm{base}) \equiv x \quad \mathrm{ap}_{\lambda i:\mathbb{I}.x}(\mathrm{loop}) \equiv \mathrm{refl}_A(x)$

We define

$K_A(t, x, p) \equiv K_A^{\prime}(t, \mathrm{rec}_{S^1}^A(x, p))$

since by circle recursion one has a path $\mathrm{rec}_{S^1}^A(x, p):S^1 \to A$ such that

$\mathrm{rec}_{S^1}^{A}(x, p)(\mathrm{base}) \equiv x \quad \mathrm{ap}_{\mathrm{rec}_{S^1}^{A}(x, p)}(\mathrm{base}, \mathrm{base}, \mathrm{loop}) \equiv p$

One has the following analogies between localization at a specific type and the type theoretic letter rule that it proves:

localization ruletype theoretic letter rule
$\mathbb{I}$-localizationJ-rule
$S^1$-localizationK-rule

Computational behavior

Unlike its logical equivalent axiom UIP, axiom K can be endowed with computational behavior: $K(A,x,P,d,refl_A x)$ computes to $d$. This gives a way to specify a computational propositionally extensional type theory.

This sort of computational axiom K can also be implemented with, and is sufficient to imply, a general scheme of function definition by pattern-matching. This is implemented in the proof assistant Agda. (The flag --without-K alters Agda’s pattern-matching scheme to a weaker version appropriate for intensional type theory, including homotopy type theory.)

References

The axiom K was introduced in

• Thomas Streicher, Investigations into intensional type theory Habilitation thesis (1993) (pdf)

For a review and discussion of the implementation in Coq, see

• Pierre Corbineau, The K axiom in Coq (almost) for free (pdf)

Discussion in the context of homotopy type theory is in

around theorem 7.2.1

Last revised on February 20, 2024 at 05:48:20. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.